Colombians like to take care of their skin

 89 percent of Colombian women use body cream, hands and a complementary cream for the skin, according to a study by the company Natura.

The pollsters found that in the dressing room or even the bathroom of any Colombian woman there is some beauty product, from body creams, facial masks – pilaten mask, bath moisturizers, body oils, lotions, exfoliants, liquid and bar soaps and other products, which only show One thing: Colombian women like to take care of their skin. And that is why there is a high level of specialization in the care of your body, especially among the younger.

However, age is not a limitation, since there are no great differences in the use of body categories according to age. Meanwhile, 4 out of 10 Colombians are dual users, being relevant to the body cream + hand cream, taking into account that users of specific creams for hands say use more than once a day.

The data from the study were known during the re-launch of the Natura ‘Tododia’ product line, with which the firm seeks to become involved in women’s body care routines in the country.


Hilda Herrera, Natura Cosmetics dermatologist, shared the daily basic care that should be taken to conserve the skin in its natural conditions and minimize the effects of the natural passage of time.

Proper cleaning: it is vital to clean the skin of both the face and body to eliminate harmful environmental substances accumulated during the day.

Hydrate the body: like the face, body skin needs daily hydration. It is advisable to use soaps or creams with substances originating from fruits that provide an optimal level of moisturizing.

Body scrubs: recommended for use once or twice a week maximum, they help to remove dead cells found in the outermost layer of the skin, regenerating cells and giving a healthier and smoother look to it.

Soaps: much depends on the taste and skin type of the person using it: there are women who prefer the liquid to the bar, but both are good choices, it is important that contain substances that contribute to wetting the skin needs daily.

Areas that need more hydration: generally, the extremities are most shrivel and especially knees, elbows and feet, precisely because there is no awareness that in these places is also necessary to apply moisturizing products.


Through community organizing, and multi discplinario work between architects, designers, urban gardeners and volunteers in the sector, the movement  Urban Reforestation has managed to change the face of a neighborhood of the Docklands (in ports) of the city of Melbourne , Australia.






One way to make projects of this type economically sustainable, while involving more people, is to create a market for vegetables and vegetables planted in the urban gardens themselves. They do so in the Docklands Garden: they have an organic market, where they sell the produce, and they also organize dinners to benefit (for self-financing) in which they serve foods harvested by the same community.

Next to the garden, they are developing a small-scale Sustainable Living Center with the collaboration of architects, landscapers melbourne, eco-designers, farmers and the community. The idea is to turn the space into a community center for sustainable development, where education, welfare activities, community dinners, a market and a community composting center can be offered.



Other initiatives that Urban Reforestation develops with other organizations, for the community, relate to other aspects of sustainable urban life. For example, there is a campaign  One home one tree , which offers young people to plant a tree around your home; Are also starting a center for sustainable design studies, through the experience they have obtained and the collaborators who have recruited in small-scale jobs.

The 3D arrives with force to the domestic projectors of home theater

Home cinema, that is, the ability of the viewer to watch movies in their own home with a sound and image quality, beyond the size of the screen, which have little to envy commercial theaters, is reaching levels of acceptance Growing. The leisure time shared with family or friends, and the convenience of not depending on schedules or paying an entrance, begin to be very attractive aspects.

Today’s often large TVs provide high-definition picture quality Hier entlang, and sound amplifiers, capable of delivering a multi-channel soundtrack, complete the show. But for those who miss the “cinema effect”, there is an even more interesting alternative: the projectors, the technology of which has reached a high level. With them it is possible to project video images achieving a very large screen size, and still very luminous.

Many moviegoers enjoy all this technology at home, with not too high investments. But the technique in commercial theaters also advances , and perhaps to attract more audience to theaters, film engineers never cease to innovate in areas such as image or sound. One of the new contributions that have made furor during the last times have been the films in 3D. Spectators can appreciate this effect thanks to special polarized glasses, far removed from the old colored anaglyphs.

As it could not be otherwise, the commercialization of 3D films in the domestic sector was not slow in occurring, for which it has required a new technological leap in our televisions. Many of the new mid-range and high-end devices are already equipped with everything you need to present high-quality 3D movies. But what about the lovers of the projectors?

(Photo: NEC)


3D visualization technology applied to the world of projectors has taken a little longer to be available, and often at high prices. Things, however, are already changing. A new generation of 3D-compatible projectors is reaching out to specialist retailers, and it’s becoming an option to take full account.

The 3D projector is naturally compatible with all types of image, with the addition of that new technology. Nevertheless, there are different types of equipment on the market. There are 3D Full HD, 3D HD Ready and even low cost, equipped with HDMI connections that are capable of handling the flow of data that involves three-dimensional projection. In addition, 3D projectors can be subdivided into assets and liabilities, depending on the type of glasses they use. Their prices fluctuate greatly, from little more than 300 euros to 6,000 euros or more, depending on the type of optics, output resolution, brightness, etc.

The most complete 3D projectors have a resolution of 1920 by 1200, ie compatible with Full HD, and a lighting system for LCD or DLP, capable of brightness up to 6200 lumens and a contrast ratio of 6000: 1 or better. They are equipped with interchangeable lenses and can even be connected via Wifi to computer equipment. A recent technical addition, the interface for 4K images, will surely prevail over time. They can also carry 2D to 3D image converters.

In addition to cinema, 3D projectors are ideal for displaying large format images of our computer games, looking for maximum immersion for the player, or for business and educational activities.

The projectors are not intended for continuous use for many hours and their lamps usually last between 2,000 and 4,000 hours, depending on several factors. However, during the time that we make them work, they will provide a sensation of cinematic vision incomparable. With 3D, now, we can enjoy at home the same thing that we could find in a commercial cinema. Especially if we make our own popcorn.

Colombian Arq. examples of landscape design

More and more people prefer the countryside to the city or, failing that, bring a bit of rural life to our urban life. In our daily life, often burdened by schedules, responsibilities and traffic, we value returning home and find a small green (or large, if we are lucky) where we forget the big city. That’s where comes into play garden design . Our small grounds, with a little creativity and know-how of experts in the field, can be transformed into a true personal oasis. Here we discover 8 examples of garden with an interesting landscape design melbourne

Play with the curves

Bahce Tasarim style gardens

Bahce Tasarim


This example of landscape design has to do with curves and geometry. Different curves have different functions; the road that winds right behind the guide pool owners and guests different areas of the garden, while the curved wall acts as a screen of privacy,  dividing the recreation area of the house. 

A little field

Classic style terraces DAVINCI HAUS GmbH & Co. KG

DAVINCI HAUS GmbH & amp;  Co. KG


This is a true example of how to turn our garden into a veritable hidden oasis. This space exudes serenity. With an impressive ecological swimming pool that resembles a pond, in this place one can get used to the idea that every day of our life is Sunday. With a clear division of spaces, in this garden the areas are well delimited: to sunbathe, to dine in the shade or to walk and enjoy the vegetation.

If you are interested in ecological pools you can read more about them  here .


Modern style houses by Daffonchio & Associates Architects

Daffonchio & amp;  Associates Architects


By installing a row of plants, the designer of this project seeks to continue the feeling of length modern building projects. In perpendicular to the main block of the house, the garden extends harmonic and tranquil like a real corner of peace.

The tranquility of a patio in the shade

Country-style gardens of Comoglio Architetti

Comoglio Architetti


More than a garden, we are here before a courtyard. Tucked under the arches and the shadows cast by the surrounding buildings, this court seeks verticality with vines climbing up the walls. The ponds give a calm and calm air to the space. A place to wait quietly, read a book or try to listen to the noise of the birds.

The oriental touch

Bahce Tasarim style gardens

Bahce Tasarim


The Japanese gardens are world - renowned for its relaxed atmosphere and its perfect symmetry. In this design, of clear eastern influence, the rocks have been placed there to represent the natural and mountainous landscape, while white pebbles are a representation of the sea. For practical purposes, the stone is much simpler than the grass, and its maintenance is cheaper.

If you are interested in oriental gardens, you can read this article on  how to create a Japanese garden . 

Common space

Commercial style spaces translation missing: de Aralia



The garden design is not left alone in the private sector. Also the commercial establishments, like residences or offices, can count on a space that to turn into an interesting garden, where the functionality is as important as the aesthetic. In this example, a nursing home, hence the roads are clearly delimited and there are benches where to rest every few meters. 

Tropical luxury

Aralia Modern Style Gardens



Tucked away in the middle of a wild vegetation and tropical this sofa with cushions and lamp atmosphere invites us to rest. All a tropical luxury that takes us to the other side of the Atlantic with just cross the other side of garden.

A path between plants

Bahce Tasarim style gardens

Bahce Tasarim


The garden design plays with natural and human and architectural elements. Here this road, built in wood, is clothed by leafy plants, which nevertheless know well where the limit. A path that seems to take us deep into the forest. 

Eight Things to Consider When Visiting a Chiropractor for Back Pain

It has been a long time since your back pain bothers you but you do nothing. The same goes with the neck, legs, dolls … and you, playing the role of martyr in the movie suffering in silence. Even when?

Your health is an issue that does not admit of excuses, should be a priority in your life. Many actions that are done daily, and without thinking, can be causing annoyances that, if they take advantage, could become a permanent agony.

   Bad postures and “badly made forces” are usually the main cause of these pains. However, many mistakes are made in sleeping, an action as innocent as that.

 “Sleeping face down is a big problem because in this position the head is turned to one side and this can cause the vertebrae to misalign,” explains chiropractor Nicolas Necak.

“That’s why it is important to sleep on your back or side, to avoid putting your spine in this bad posture during the night; And during the day sit upright and maintain a good posture in order to ensure a healthy spine and nervous system, “advises the chiropractor, who resolves some of the frequently asked questions as a result of this profession, which for some Colombians is little known , But that should be consulted by many.

1. Frequent motives for consultation 

Many people visit a chiropractor preventively to maintain a healthy spine and nervous system before they have pain.
However, the common problems we see in the office are headaches, migraines, back and neck pain, pain / numbness / tingling that can go down legs and arms due to a herniated disc, such as sciatica.
Chiropractic consists of accurately adjusting the segments affected by the vertebral subluxation complex to restore a normal functional state to the spine and eliminate interference on the nervous system.

2. Common abuses

The technology. Continually people are in a forward bending position, which is very damaging to the spine.
When working on a computer or sending text messages the position of the head will move forward with respect to the body, which will increase the amount of physical stress that has to assimilate the spine. This can cause the vertebrae to come out of their normal alignment and put pressure on the nervous system, which, over time, can result in health problems.

3. Signs to be alert 

People should visit the chiropractor on a regular basis and take care of their spine continuously throughout their life, as well as any other aspect of the body. Like many diseases, vertebral damage shows no symptoms until the problem is in its final stages. Upon receiving monthly vertebral checkups as part of spinal hygiene prevention care, a person will take an important step to avoid avoidable vertebral damage. If you feel pain, discomfort or stiffness, this can mean that the problems are already accumulating and that a chiropractic vertebral examination is the most advisable.

4. It is advisable:

Be aware. Be careful with posture, make sure that while standing or sitting your ears are aligned with your shoulders and hips and not leaning forward.
If you sit at work for long periods, be sure to take an active break every 20 minutes and stretch.
Do not sleep on your stomach, turn it face up or sideways to avoid bending your spine at night.
Adopt a lifestyle of spinal hygiene and care of your spine preventively, with regular vertebral checkups of a chiropractor.

5. When is it not highly recommended?

Although chiropractic care has many techniques that can be used in many diverse cases of vertebral problems, if you have a fractured vertebra due to a serious accident, a vertebral infection or cancer in the vertebra, the treatment may not be advisable in these cases . It is important to visit a professionally trained chiropractor, to ensure that you are getting the proper technique for your specific case.

6. How to choose the best?

 It is vital to make sure the chiropractor has earned a diploma from an accredited chiropractic institution. In Colombia chiropractic is very new. Trained chiropractors in the United States and Canada have been taught at a Chiropractic Doctorate level of 4,500 hours of education in anatomy, physiology, neurology, diagnosis, orthopedics, radiology, pathology, etc., as well as one year of residency Of clinical practice supervised by a university professor.

7. At what age to visit the chiropractor?

It is for all ages since childbirth, falls, accidents, stress and poor postures cause subluxations. Remember that it is not a technique, it is a profession and there are many techniques that can be used according to the condition of your spine. Among these techniques are the manual technique, that of the activator, which is a specialized instrument that can be used in children or in elderly people with osteoporosis, or the Thompson technique, which involves a chiropractic stretcher that helps in the adjustment.

8. What to expect?

On your first visit, the chiropractor will want to review your history and ask you a series of questions to better understand your problem. Then, you will review your vertebra column by vertebra in search of vertebral subluxations. Vertebral subluxation occurs when a vertebra in the spine is out of alignment and puts pressure on the nerve. As a result, this can block the transmission of the nerve impulse, such as a short circuit that affects how your brain and body communicate, causing damage and health problems. At a regular visit, you will review your spine to check your progress and then move on to adjust your subluxations.

The best films released in Colombia in 2014

The year is closing and with it the necessary balances on the best and worst, stream tv has decided not to make an assessment about the worst because, fortunately, was able to evade many films that ultimately showed the crisis of stories in the film industry. I am sorry, that Yes, not having seen one sufficient number of Colombian films because in the majority of cases it occurred to me that because they are outside the country or work full me they spent few days in which could be watch series online in billboard and then because it was not possible (with the exception of The fungi that is now available online , something that others should also consider).

Thus the things present a list which, as I always say, is personal and incomplete. It has to do with quality, but of course also with the taste and it will be surely some titles that I could not see, since little time passed by Billboard. He also clarified that it is films released this year in Colombian theaters, regardless of their year of preparation. That leaves out the films we saw in festivals or those very good with 2014 World Premiere and that they have not yet reached (or will not come).

Here you can read my favorite of each year during the last five years (2010, 2011,2012 and 2013). Next week I will present my usual videoblog for the newspaper xmovies8.

10 – Boyhood (Richard Linklater, USA): Without penalty or glory passed through our Billboard this interesting film which, beyond their history, is an interesting film documentThe director decided to make it with the same actors for 12 years and very few effective days of filming: its protagonist started at age five and finished with 18. It has excellent performances and the story is so authentic that transitions are not made to notice the passage of time. It’s a journey strides through the life of a family and their everyday conflicts in a natural way and without major surprises.

9 – dirty hands (Josef Wladyka, USA-Colombia): Beyond the discussion on if this film can be considered or not Colombian (I think it is more Colombian than many, including the Dago), this story is surprising and suggests a serious reflection on social issues in a region so troubled as the Buenaventura, with a solid and entertaining story. The great merit of this film is to surf with confidence between a proposal’s author and a story that may like to the public (although the box office in Colombia was bad) and tell a story of conflict without wallow in the dead. Rescue is that this year we had on undercard two good Colombian films with similar characteristics: Matthew of María Gamboa and Juan Carlos Melo Guevara Garden of poppies .

8 – Her (Spike Jonze, USA): Jonze had already given us another great cinematographic journey in 1999 with would you like being John Malkovich? and presents a very original to induce to a reflection on the current and future society history but, apart from this, also talks about evolution of a relationship with Her . In my opinion, this is one of the best scripts of the year with this film Joaquin Phoenix, in his character of Theodore (Theo = God) continues to demonstrate its great acting ability. Interesting was also the controversy of whether you should be considered to Scarlett Johanson for categories of action as “only” used his voice for the character of Samantha (I think Yes).

7 – best offer (Giussepe Tornatore, Italy): This film came with a year’s delay and went unnoticed in our Billboard. Since his unforgettable Cinema Paradiso,Tornatore has shown that he is a great storyteller and this story is measured to have a fascinating thriller that revolves around two enigmatic characters. Geoffrey Rush, as usual, raises the quality of any film.

6 – Interstellar (Cristopher Nolan, USA-UK): with constant references to iconic films of the genre like contact, 2001 a space Odyssey “and” close encounters of the third kind; Nolan presents a story as interesting as entertaining. It’s a flawless film in every way that a rigorous screenplay advised by the prestigious astrophysicist Kip Thorne and the magnificent performance of a large cast headed by the amazing Matthew McConaughey in addition to the technical virtuosity (this was, without a doubt, his great year). Nolan manages to build a fantastic and plausible universe with a history that is perhaps too long but manages to catch viewers.

5 – the past (Asgar Farhadi, France-Italy – Iran): when it came out in a separation of the Iranian director Asgar Farhadi Billboard, we were surprised by a small Pearl in a tradition of good stories. With the past the director returns to attend an historia hard and moving without effects or fanfare, again a daily plot where it is difficult to identify heroes or villains, just ordinary people with successes and errors and where the protagonist is, of course, the past with its aftermath.

4 – circle of love is broken (Broken circle breakdown. ) Felix Van Groening, Belgium): this movie of 2012 was a couple of weeks in billboard. It’s a tremendously poignant story that mixes the hard drama with great music (American folk) and a great mix of emotions to narrate a plot without makeup or easy retail concessionsPersonally, I like the stories well told, human, and is partly suffering and this is the essence of this film.

3. an indelible past (The railway man. ) Jonathan Teplitzky, Australia-Suiza-UK): It is very difficult to structure a story from feelings so intangible as pain and forgiveness, but this Australian movie succeeds. With a powerful performance from Colin Firth and Nicole Kidman, andsta film manages to transport us to another timeand the skin of a war veteran who was cruelly tortured, to learn their motives and feelings. Stands out the choice of a warm atmosphere for a story told in a tone of melancholy and that much can relate to the situation that our country is living.

2 – the golden cage (Diego Quemada ten, Mexico-Guatemala – Spain): This powerful film presents a touching and disturbing story in the hands of three young actors (Bombón and debutantes) that, in the course of filming, had to live with real characters who travel from Guatemala trying to pass two borders up to theAmerican dream or, as the title, its own golden cage; lto history of the shooting can be even more interesting is that counted on the screen.

In March I had the opportunity to interview its director Diego burned ten at the International Film Festival of Cartagena and do a review of the film which can be watch series here.

1 – wild stories (Damián Szifron, co-Argentina): many expectations had generated among moviegoers this, the highest grossing film in the history of Argentine cinema, and ltruth is showing that you can make films of quality that you like to the general public. Even though it has the problem of coral stories (irregularity in the intensity of the stories) achieved a powerful rhythm and boasting one of the best casts in recent years, presents an x-ray on animal savagery that persists within every one of us in contemporary life. The film hits facing each viewer showing its characters doing things that many of us just imagine, in an overflow of black humor and with a high quality of production. Wild stories achieved, moreover, show Hollywood that good stories can be counted without giving up the ingredients that the public prefers.

Some of which were left out are: Omar, Wakolda, Philomena, the judge, Inside Llewyn Davis, Nebraska, Dallas Buyers club, that parent this child, Gloria, August Osage County, the incredible life of Walter Mitty, Enemy, Garden of poppies, the immigrant and love indigo.

The new installment of X-Men, the comedies About time and Chef and the movie children’s Frozen and the book of life were also commercial proposals of good quality.

How is the Digital Advertising in Colombia?

Colombia continues to fall on the network and increasing at a rate faster - . It’s like a snowball of those we see in cartoons, only in this case, what it means is a substantial improvement in the society. Initiatives to digitize the population from private companies and the Government, are giving results.

And we see this in the data that we are getting, a bit delayed, but it is also an issue that is improving, thanks to the Ministry of ICT (Read more) and IAB (IAB Colombia) .

Investment in digital advertising, also continues to grow and grow an 18.53% - . Let us not forget that it is a trend that comes to the rise of a few years ago.

First in digital media advertising investment increases by 16%.

But what more it confirms our observations is the decrease in investment in classifieds and directories, a trend that occurs because companies find other ways to reach your target audience, as it can be the video, which increasingly has more strength or social media, which increasingly is professionalizing more. It also confirms the fact that companies increasingly invest more in content.

It must also take into account the weak investment growth in banners (advertising invasive), which in fact is heading that loses a greater weight in the distribution of digital web investment.

In terms of mobile, the investment increase is spectacular, growth is a 117% compared to the previous period.What more it grows is the investment in video searches followed. Even at the level of relative weight, these two items are those that earn more. Of course, lost investment in SMS, displaced by other Apps that meet this mission. It is also striking concerning of the banners, while absolute weight loss grow, relative level lose 25% for 2013.

Also we see that it decreases the trend in investment in traditional advertising -  and also every time, with greater force.

And how internet users behave:

According to Alexa, the sites most visited are:

  • Google
  • Facebook
  • YouTube
  • Blogspot
  • Twitter
  • Weather
  • best Calgary video production
  • the Viewer
  • MercadoLibre

Document management software in Colombia

document management in Colombia

abox ® document which landed in Colombia to serve the Latin American market, It is taking into account that the General files law (law 594 of 2000)which obliges authorities and Colombian authorities to carry out a program of  marketing project management, which involves the implementation of computer systems tailored to the spirit of that standard was issued in that country.

The Manager documentary abox document ® design, is has always inspired in the archives as Moreq2 or ISO international standards, so it was born close to the fulfilment of all the requirements of the General archive of the nation in Colombia.

For this reason Adapting America as a subsidiary of the software manufacturer, reached an agreement with the company’s consulting services in document management and Archiving Software and DI, located in Bogotá.

Software DI, partner, backed up by his experience as former officers of the General archive of the nation and that they even actively participated in the drafting of the law 594, performs his technical advice for the setting of abox document to Colombian regulation requirements.

Colombian mothers know little about the care of the premature baby

baby boy

In Colombia, most mothers know that an infant prematurity is born before week 37. Even 90 percent of respondents who had this experience did not.
This is one of the results of the first ‘Study the level of awareness of prematurity ‘, made ​​by the world organization PSL Group among 1,949 people from 19 countries.
In Colombia participated Clara Esperanza Galvis, president of the Colombian Association of Neonatology, and Juan Gabriel Piñeros, section chief of neonatology and the department of pediatrics at Santa Fe de Bogota Foundation, which collected information 100 parents of premature and term infants, and pregnant women who had access to the Internet to complete a questionnaire in 20 minutes.
The results concluded that the experiences of birth and during the first months of the baby were different among mothers who had babies at term and preterm which had (before 37 weeks).
Emotionally, the latter is much more felt helpless, isolated and anxious help their babies while they were in the hospital, compared with mothers who delivered at term, and were concerned about possible complications of long-term health and delays in physical development of the baby .
Therefore, mothers of children preterm think less about having more children.
Apparently, one reason is the economic burden it generates and repetitive absences, additional to those of her maternity leave. of his works
Despite his ignorance, the analysis revealed that Most mothers of preterm infants thought they knew well the risks of prematurity. 56 percent, by information provided by the pediatrician or neonatologist, and 50 percent, data delivered by a midwife
Half of the respondents with children preterm assured be afraid to take your baby home to be discharged from the hospital, for fear of a cold, and over half reported fear of burdening their firstborn.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO ), each year about 15 million babies in the world, ie, more than one in 10 births are preterm.
Preterm birth thus becomes the leading cause of death of infants during the first four weeks of life .
Some risk factors of preterm birth and intrauterine pregnancies are multiple abnormalities, obstetric hemorrhage and toxemia.
“The likelihood of premature have a normal life varies with the degree of immaturity, early and timely care that is offered and the degree experience of the treating specialist and timely access to a neonatal unit. The standard of living among those weighing more than 1500 grams is over 90 percent, and among under 750 grams, 20 percent, “Galvis said.
For his part, Piñeros who created the guide to buying baby carriers, reiterated that the country is conducted Program Kangaroo Mother, controlling the baby until the first year of life and makes neurological and growth to school adjustment tracking.
In addition, there are approximately 210 neonatal units, concentrated in the main cities of the country.
Piñeros in his best baby carrier reviews said that premature babies are at greater risk of developing health complications short and long term, including cerebral palsy, mental retardation, chronic lung disease and loss of vision and hearing.
The population born before 32 weeks of gestation have increased risk of respiratory infections.



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Confuse travelers with bad leaftlets prepared; detrimental to Nuevo Laredo

Confuse-a-traveler-with-booklet-mal-developed; -perjudican-a-Nuevo Laredo

NUEVO LAREDO Promoted crossing the international bridge of Colombia Nuevo León, with misinformation about crossing time compared to Nuevo Laredo, the name of the local international bridges and the number of booths each. In tollbooths New Leon, are delivering leaflets which promote the benefits of crossing the border port; but reversed the names and number of booths available on the international bridges 1 and 2. In the leaflets indicate that cross the bridge I would take 45 minutes, 55 minutes Bridge II, III by 30 minutes, while the zero minutes of Colombia; the triptych has also printed logos North and Goals. When I call bridge Juarez-Lincoln, and state that has 15 booths, while the bridge II as llamanan Portal of the Americas and says it has 4 cabins. Such information beyond guiding nationals wishing to travel to the United States, confuses those first occasion performed or visiting the country once a year, if you decide to go through this border take over the bridge of the Americas, which has less number of booths available. In this leaflets include official logos of the Government of Nuevo León and allegedly drawing up the prospectus is awarded to the Corporation for the Development of the Border Area of Nuevo León, promoting his route to go shopping in Laredo, San Antonio and San Marcos. More info:

Weddings in Colombia

Weddings in Colombia have a common point with the Spanish-speaking world, although it has its own peculiarities.

A wedding in Colombia can be similar to a wedding in Spain or Mexico, but have little to do with a wedding in Japan or the United Kingdom.

There are some traditions like despedidad bachelor / a, the position occupied by the parties on the altar, the earnest, the veil that are also common traditions at weddings held in Spain.

In Colombia there is a traditional wedding cake is called ponqué and which originated as current pies in a tradition that was to break bread at the head of the bride. Was subsequently evolved to become modern cakes we know.

It is also common in the Colombian weddings break the glasses and then save the crystals. It is also a tradition that the bride and groom have a wedding photobooth to save the precious moments of the wedding.


The first sample of historical painting in Colombia occurred on Thursday August 8 leap year 1816. This is the quintamiento suffered that day by some Patriots Campaign South prisoners in jail in Popayan, at the hands of realistic Captain Laureano . Gruesso 
the bottom of the drawing, the author wrote these words: “José María Espinosa Prieto in the dungeons of Popayan when he was shot Quinta do for the year 1816. Picture painted by him in the dungeon.” José María Espinosa, the flagship of Nariño, made ​​this drawing in ink and wash on a small sheet of white paper. In his Memoirs of a champion, published by José Caicedo Rojas in 1876, Espinosa tells quintamiento in the episode “I, led by my good humor, and my love of drawing, I did a caricature of Don Laureano Gruesso with my stick China ink I got from Santa Fe, and I did not abandon all season until my return, and pouring brush a rush or straw wet with saliva. “

Policarpa Salvarrieta up to execution. 
Oil copyright unidentified nineteenth century. 73 x 91 cm.National Museum of Colombia, Bogotá

The flagship relates the following: “In the event we did form there in row; and as I knew that the fifth was to count from right to left from one to five, and those to whom fell the latter number was sentenced to death, had the courage to get out up to two times in row and counting from right to left and I always liked the fatal number [...] But this was not the system quintar they would use us but of ballots. They being formed brought in a boy about ten years and put in a jar twenty ballots funkiest of which seventeen were blank and the remaining four had written one [point] M, they handed him over to be passing in front of the row. Then I saw that I had lost my job to tell and it was illusory hope I had that touched me number three. Each drew his ballot, the desenrrollaba and showed, and if I had the M, Jimenez said the colonel: “You Take a step forward and go to chapel! ‘”.The scene, drawn synthetically shows the two facing rows of prisoners and soldiers and the Spanish realistic head with his sword drawn as a cartoon figure. All the drama of the historical moment stands at the confrontation between the two sides. 
Half a century later, but before publishing his memoirs, Espinosa repainted the Quintada, this time in the album
historian José María Quijano Otero, which is preserved in the Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango. Espinosa again narrated the episode of quintamiento and accompanied with a watercolor covering more detail in presenting the group of prisoners and the prison yard, even to differentiate in detail dresses Patriots. The cartoonist and illustrator also included some humorous elements: the patriot chief appears now back on the wall and draws his reply with a dog and other characters in the form of graffiti, and the sign “quantum morior melior” maximum stoic. Officers who took ballot death were nothing short of José Hilario López, Rafael Cuervo, Mariano Alejo Posse and Sabaraín, Salvarrieta Policarpa lover. On the album, Joaquín Paris that “López, drew his ballot after death, instead of flinching made ​​her a cigarette and then went to the chapel saying, I’ll smoke my luck …”. But the next day, when convicts were at the foot of the bench in the Plaza de San Camilo, where they found the bodies of other patriots shot came from Quito pardoned by President Toribio Montes, who saved their lives. Espinosa signed and dated his account on December 16, 1869.


As is known, historical painting is a genre that has appeared intermittently in the history of Western art. We know the famous Hellenistic mosaic of Alexander in the battle of Issus, found in the excavations of Pompeii, which is like an unavoidable reference model for all historical painter. Also come to mind, and in the modern era, some prominent examples, such as the series of historical paintings Salon Kingdoms in the Palacio del Buen Retiro, which belongs Surrender of Breda or Spears, Velazquez painted between 1634 and 1635, or the series of twenty large compositions of the History of Marie de Medici to gallery Luxembourg in Paris, painted by Rubens between 1622 and 1625. However, the rise of historical painting occurs with neoclassicism, with romanticism, especially with the French Revolution, with the advent of Napoleon and the school of painters of his environment: David, Baron Gros, Isabey, Boilly, Gérard, Girodet, Ingres, Guérin, then Delacroix, or Goya in Spain and Benjamin West, dean of Anglo-American history painting. Later, the pictorial academicism throughout the nineteenth century welcomes history painting as its own genre, both in Europe and in America.

Murder of Sucre. 
Oil of Pedro José Figueroa, 1835. February 00 cm x 139.5. Collection Banco de la República, Bogotá

José María Obando Berruecos in morning dress. 
Lithograph by Carlos Casar de Molina, Cartagena, 1835-1836.

A historical painting always tells an event of national, current or past history. It implies, therefore, an attitude of realism, which testifies to the fact witnessed, or rebuilt with a concern for historical accuracy past events. These facts must be significant to the history of a country, and generally involve a transit point or a rite of passage: a foundational act, a pledge, an ascension to power, a sacrifice, an abdication, a battle access to another life stage. The struggle, heroism and moral values ​​underlying historical painting and give it its justification. In this sense, all historical painting is necessarily political, because it serves a few ideas and a certain conception of the human being. In general, historical painting also extols the value, freedom, loyalty and patriotism. And in any case, always civic virtues, through faith in ideas, whatever they may be, to the cult of righteousness and truth.

History painting exalts the individual (sometimes in the form of the hero), to the community and nature, ie, the landscape of a country, often also becomes the protagonist, as in the famous Battle of Espinosa. But the exaltation can use symbolic forms, and then becomes allegorical painting, which is not properly historical, since no longer narrates an event as it occurred.

The realism that involves a historical painting involves attention to detail. The appearance and attitudes of the characters, costumes and objects, scenery, are particularly important. The composition and the effects are more complex than in a conventional paint. So history painting can not avoid theatricality, as they can not even keep music and classical drama, or opera, which also draws on history. Finally, say that the limit of historical painting is realism. As it is broken with the art of the twentieth century abstraction, historical painting declines and disappears. In Colombia, which flows arrive late art, history painting still survives half century.

Death of General Santander . Oil Luis García Hevia, 1841. 163 x 205 cm. 
National Museum of Colombia, Bogotá.

It never was knight ladies as well served. Watercolor José Manuel Groot, ca. 1847. Old Collection Rivas Sacconi, Bogotá.


In the colonial period, only two paintings develop a historical theme: Gregorio Vásquez delivers two of his works to the Augustinian fathers, an idealized allegory and Income Viceroy Solis to the convent, ie their religious profession as Fray José de Jesus Maria in the convent of San Francisco on February 28, 1761. Solis, kneeling at the foot of the altar of the Virgin, embrace the crucifix and rejects their lay robes and his habit of Knight of the Order of Montesa with a vehement gesture hand. On the ground, gloves and baton which has stripped the viceroy, put the dramatic note.

Policarpa Salvarrieta up to execution, anonymous fabric around 1825, marks the beginning of a rich iconography. Beatriz González says, “The meticulous work of the faces of Christ and shows that the painter had full knowledge of his craft. The alteration of the volumes makes this box a clear precedent painting Fernando Botero. The treatment of color recalls the elegance of colonial paintings. “ Indeed, this painting is like a Republican ex-voto of a certain popular primitivism. Beatriz González considers this work as “one of the most remarkable examples of Republican painting”.

Pedro José Figueroa, author of numerous portraits of Bolívar and some religious paintings, painted Murder of Sucre in 1835, in large format, five years after the death of Sucre and three years before dying himself. In this painting historical painting and politically motivated bind, because 1835 is the year that a new application of José María Obando for President of the Republic is launched in Panama, and it is known that Obando was identified as the mastermind the murder of Sucre.

Figueroa’s painting contains a veiled complaint no Obando. The time of the murder occurs at the mouth of a theater stage, in which the viewer watches from a high viewpoint, as if placed in a box. On the way Berruecos Mountain, quarterback drops bullet wound, his horse fled in terror and his assistant surprised, Lorenzo Caicedo, his white mule stops before coming to the aid of the victim. Four gunmen (including Juan Gregorio Sarria and Jose Erazo) are hidden at the top and bottom of the ravine “tiger”, ie Obando looks. The picturesqueness of this painting becomes more apparent intention of the painter’s ironic that here, reviving a historical fact, skirts caricature. Moreover, his story matches the Posada Joaquín Gutiérrez would in their historical and political memoirs, published in 1865. José María Espinosa also painted this matter, around 1845, although in his painting landscape leaves secondly the protagonists and the gunmen do not appear in the scene.

José María Obando Berruecos in morning dress is a lithograph by Carlos Casar de Molina recorded in Cartagena in 1835 or 36. In the background also staged the murder of Sucre, which, as is known, occurred about nine o’clock 4 June 1830, hence the “morning dress”.

Juanambú 1814. 
Watercolor José María Espinosa, ca. 1848. 
13.4 x 21 cm. 
National Museum of Colombia, Bogotá.

Battle of the Ejido de Pasto, 1814. 
Oil of José María Espinosa, ca. 1850. 
80 x 120 cm. 
National Museum of Colombia, Bogotá.

On May 6, 1841, at 6:32 pm, at the age of 48 years, died in Bogotá Francisco de Paula Santander, resulting consternation of the city and the country. That same year Luis García Hevia painted large format your canvas Death of General Santander.Pilar Moreno de Angel says: “This work of great testimonial value is the most important historical picture of the nineteenth-century Colombia.” And it is, no doubt, by its intensity, its plastic effectiveness, its concentration, which meets in a tight space to 17 characters, and its sober contrast of black and white, with touches more color, which show a remarkable economy of means. The drawing is neat, and accurate implementation of the portraits, characters that are fully identified. Apart from naivety and clarity of approach again find here, we can not help but appreciate the Republican austerity emanating from this work.

There is an engraving by Louis Marin Lavigne, executed in Paris around 1845 on a defunct version of this picture by Espinosa, where the Republican lesson is lost. Santander is transferred to a soft bed with canopy and curtains brocade, friends assume a bourgeois character and atmosphere is warm. The two servants are removed from the scene!

Never out ladies gentleman served so well is a caricature of José Manuel Groot, done in watercolor by 1846 or 47, during the first government of Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera, who appears trowel in hand, surrounded by his henchmen. Above, a raven holding a cartouche with the legend “Progress of the country”, associated with a crab, as you know, go back. Other legends ironic complete the picture. The block of stone and marsh may allude to Mosquera constructor Capitol, but can also be an explicit reference to its relationship with Colombian Freemasonry.

William Martin, the dog Phosphorus and constituents. Watercolor José Gabriel Tatis, 1853. 
Album “Test drawing”. National Museum of Colombia, Bogotá.


Thus we reach the famous series of battles José María Espinosa, a highlight of historical painting in Colombia, to be dated between 1848, the year that showed a sketch of Alto Palacé in the Exhibition of Products Industry, and 1863, the year he died Alejandro Osorio. In the last paragraph of his Memoirs of a champion, the artist says: “I also made eight shares of war that are in Palacio habérmelas purchased by the government when he was president for the second time Don Manuel Murillo T. Some of these pictures, who were long in my power, were approved by the general gentlemen Joaquin Paris, Hilario López i by Mr. Dr. Alejandro Osorio, who was secretary general Nariño throughout the southern campaign. “ The purchase was completed in 1872, amounting to five hundred dollars.

In these eight warfare campaign Nariño must add two others painted in the same format, the Battle of Boyacá and Action Castle Maracaibo. His dates are uncertain and provisionally can be ascribed to the same period of mid-century. Consider that the painting of battles is all an important subgenre of historical painting.

Watercolor Juanambú 1814 shows essentially the conception of his paintings Espinosa has battle: a dramatic detail in the foreground, military action in the median plane and at the bottom, all inserted into the grandeur of the landscape. As well has always said about these battles, in them, “nature dominates the historical narrative”. But we must not fall into a performance you see in these pictures only landscape.

The Pola in chapel. Oil of José María Espinosa, ca. 1857. 80 x 70 cm. Municipal Council, Villa de Guaduas.

Ricaurte in San Mateo. Pencil drawing Alberto Urdaneta, ca. 1885. 
15.5 x 11.5 cm. Private property, Bogotá

For the sake of brevity, we will refer only to the Battle of Ejidos de Pasto that was fought on May 10 of the year 14, with the defeat of the patriots. Espinosa noted that in El Calvario, combat site, Nariño horse fell dead with a bullet, “he says and then loaded on the overall number of troopers, he, without abandoning his horse, one leg on one side and other other animal faithful, quickly pulled their guns … “It’s the scene that is seen in the center of the frame.

On 20 May 1853 the Congress of New Granada issued a new constitution, approved the following day by President José María Obando. The Cartagena Lieutenant José Gabriel Tatis watercolor painted in just thirty-three days an album of 23 sheets drawing titled Essays and dated June 15, 1853. This album contains 136 pictures, including the author himself on the cover and representatives and senators who participated in the constituent, President Obando, Vice Obaldía, members of the diplomatic corps and some foreign residents in the capital, plus views salons Senate and House. The result is the most amazing cast of characters neogranadinos half century and exaltation by a radical painter power of the people’s representatives and the only example of the genre of portrait of existing corporation in the nineteenth century in our country. The faces are perfectly individualized and characterized, like the costumes, military uniforms and religious habits. Even portrays Phosphorus, the dog of Mr. William Martin, who was not Congressman: he was owner of the album and donated to the National Museum in 1913.

Another exceptional case is the Antiochian painter Manuel D. Carvajal, who left a picture of the seven martyrs executed by order of Mosquera in the episode called The siege of Carthage (1841) and the stunning series of watercolors on the burning of the temple of San Augustine during the siege of Bogota by the troops of General Leonardo Canal on February 25, 1862, action that also photographically recorded the painter Luis García Hevia.

By 1857, José María Espinosa painted La Pola chapel, an oil medium format, which the painter presented Mr. Manuel Murillo Toro on July 20, 1873, “as a small token of his benevolence,” according to an inscription in ink black on the back of the box. In his prison Colegio Mayor del Rosario, Policarpa candle in chapel at a table with a crucifix, guarded by a guard. Bring scapular and a paper with the words “Santander” and “Casanare”.

Soldiers marching. Oil Eladio Rubio, ca. 1902. 
94 x 76 cm. Historical Museum, Casa de la Cultura, Marinilla

The oath of the flag of Cundinamarca. 
Central panel of the triptych oil Francisco Antonio Cano, 1913. 
254 x 564 cm. National Museum of Colombia, Bogotá.

Academic painting

Epifanio Garay, his son and Narciso Alberto Urdaneta are outstanding representatives of academic painting of the late nineteenth century. Paths of the first versions of La Pola chapel are preserved; Caldas de Urdaneta is the paint up to execution.As is known, Urdaneta was a great artist, but not very good painter; however, his image of Caldas provides an immediate reading, ie, presents an effective iconography. The hero just throw the coal that has drawn on the wall his famous anagram of “or long black line”, and leaves the Rosario to the plaza of San Francisco, where he will be beheaded, to October 30, 1816. The gestures are too smart and operatic for this time of sacrifice and Figure shadow monk evokes a Gothic novel.

With the title Bachelor Caldas, Antonio Rodriguez recorded the work of Urdaneta to be flattered as raw subscribers the first year of Illustrated Newspaper Paper in 1881. It is the size of a sheet. It is known that Urdaneta, whose paintings are not prolific, also painted other matters of history as a Discovery of the Pacific Ocean by Balboa (held by carved) and Ricaurte in San Mateo, now disappeared. Yes a photographic composition of this subject, in which Roberto de Narvaez landed attributed to Julio Racines, but directed by Urdaneta, and also a small pencil sketch with the basic outline of the composition is preserved. This should have been done around 1885.

Two pictures of the War of a Thousand Days, an Antiochian painter who is not on the histories of art, were recently removed from oblivion Marinilla Historical Museum for the exhibition Hundred Years of the Thousand Days’ War in the National Museum.The painter named Eladio Rubio and his oils painted to 1902. One is titled Wounded in battle, and presents a true iconography, but distinct from everything we know of that war photography and printmaking. It is not an easy painting: foreshortening pose a tour-de-force for any painter, and Rubio multiplies in his work. Blue and red is the symbolic chromaticism of this war of conservatives and liberals. Soldier marching is a tribute to the central figure: the joanne, looking at viewer and walks with grace peasant. The hebria and exalted the first soldier figure also look to the painter in a gesture of collusion, and the figure of injured reminds the plague of Jaffa who claim to Napoleon in the box Gros, though of course nothing to do iconographically speaking.No in Colombian history painting a so eg tribute to the common people. The painter and sculptor Marco Tobon Mejia Antioquia painted a Battle of Palonegro in 1905; staged a cavalry charge of which he was an eyewitness.

Over the Llanos, 1819. Oil of Jesús María Zamora, 1910. 
145 x 200 cm. Colombian Academy of History, Bogotá.


Over the Llanos, 1819. 
Detail of the head of Bolívar.



War of the Thousand Days and loss of Panama Colombians awoke in the need to think about the country, about his past and his destiny. The foundation of the Colombian Academy of History and the celebration of the centenary of the proclamation of independence, of the martyrs of the homeland, the liberator and the fourth centenary of Bogotá Colombian encouraged painters to treat historical issues. This incipient national historical painting school has nothing to do with the Schools of the second half, romantic, pompous and academic nineteenth century, but reflect nilly some modernizing tendencies, with lessons learned from Impressionism. Naturally, there are survivals of the academy, but not usually. A second feature, which has no exceptions, is the desire of environmental documentation: geographical and urban sites, portraits of the characters, costumes and objects. The Colombian history painting has in this regard fantasy, but strictly speaking, does not invent but recostruye. It is modest in creative terms, but relates the facts honestly. And, thirdly, it is a modern painting as leaving the chiaroscuro and uses light and vivid colors. Many of their representatives come from the landscape school and adapt their knowledge to history painting.Zamora and Santa Maria are notable examples.

The oath of the flag of Cundinamarca is a triptych oil painting on canvas, painted by Francisco Antonio Cano in 1913. José María Caballero Records in his diary: “Friday August 31 [1831] They came to St. Augustine all officers and Campania. grenadiers and other gunners, and grenadiers wore Auxiliary flag, which had weapons of the king, and brought the new flags to bless, with the arms of the republic. demoted to the first … [and later] is began with the blessing of the new, who blessed Mr. Canon Duquesne, with the usual formalities. “ In the central body Duquesne, José María del Castillo and Rada, Antonio Baraya carrying the flag, Antonio Nariño jurándola, José de Ayala, Manuel Bernardo Gutiérrez and Pantaleon Alvarez appear. It has been thought that the bearer can be Antonio, son of Precursor, but should rather José María Espinosa.

Battle of Boyacá. Triptych Oil Andrés de Santa Maria, 1926. 
348 x 634 cm. Casa de Narino, Bogota.
On the left side, before the high altar, an altar boy and two officiants, father and hero Francisco Antonio Florido, Franciscan, troop chaplain, and Father Jose Chavarria, provincial of the Augustinians. The right side is dedicated to women in Independence. There are differences on the identification ladies, though no doubt they are portraits: María Josefa Lozano and Magdalena Ortega, wives of Manuel Bernardo Alvarez and Antonio Nariño, respectively; Natalia Silva, wife of Antonio Nariño Ortega. Back, Phrygian caps, the two daughters of Precursor, Mercedes and Isabel.

The whole triptych, in any case, is very imaginative in terms of the different perspectives adopted each panel, which enrich the narrative and the solemnity of historical fact, and likewise their color. Five days earlier, on August 26, had come to the capital an “office of Sámano for the surrender of the city and obedience” as recorded by the chronicler Caballero. The ceremony of degradation of the flag of the king and the swearing of arms of the republic was the response of Nariño. The triptych was made for the Palace of the Governorate, but was transferred in 1948 to the National Museum, and being saved from the fire of April 9.

With oil 1819 Patriots in the Llanos, Jesús María Zamora won the gold medal at the exhibition of the centenary of 1910. The work presents an approach of extreme simplicity. The column moves led by Santander and Bolivar, after fording a river. No trumpets, no gaudy uniforms, almost no weapons either. Patriots advance to step their horses on a golden grassland. The stripping is moving. The resolution is what counts. But the small column leaving behind the clouds moving towards a light area.I think that is the great symbol table: Post tenebras spero lucem. Light after darkness. In the details of the heads of Bolivar and Santander we note the sensitive and modern work of the faces, which to the naked eye can not see. The same occurs in his canvas Bolivar and Santander in the campaign of the Plains, the National Museum. It is the dawn and everything is permeated with light in a superb prairie landscape. In Boyacá, Ricardo Acevedo Bernal shows the army of liberation campaign of 1819 and Bolívar waving in triumph to the troops. It is time for excitement and celebration of Freedom achieved.

To commemorate the centenary of execution Pola new scenes were laid in 1917. Miguel Diaz Vargas recorded in zinc intima Sergeant Iglesias prison to Pola for the newspaper The Graphic, according to the account of Mrs. Andrea Ricaurte Lozano, whose Living Room Paint Ideas in the neighborhood Egypt heroin was hidden, as the foot illustration says. Being an engraved in black ink, the artist summoned all his ability to handle light.

Ricardo Acevedo Bernal, also drew a masterly Policarpa on the scaffold to a widespread lithography, which had consequences in folk art. José Hilario López, who recounted the whole episode in his memoirs, says: “La Pola marched steadily up the torture, and rather than repeat what they said ministers did nothing but curse the Spaniards and expensive to revenge.”

The centenary of the battle in 1919 comes the picture of Cartagena painter JW Cañarete entitled Allegory of the Battle of Boyacá, where the Libertador intimate surrender to the royalist leader José María Barreiro, captured by the soldier Pedro Martinez. Santander at the forefront of cutting edge approaches in the center and on the bridge greets the general Antozoátegui.The allegorical nature of the work is that the painter selects an ideal time after the battle, to gather in one place to allegorical Libertadores and the defeated boss. In the clouds, in the center of clarity, other horsemen ride: the figure of Bolivar in the dimension of the hero.

The year 19 is also the work that bears the following inscription: “Going through the savannah towards the Liberator Army Bogotá after the victory of Boyacá, August 10, 1819″. Medium format, and decidedly primitive, its author, boyacense painter Francisco de Paula Alvarez makes a reinterpretation of the setting practiced by Espinosa, including anecdotal figures in the foreground, the movements of livestock and to the detail of smoke in the background.

Foundation of Bogotá. Oil Pedro A. Quijano, 1938. 
110 x 160 cm. Colombian Academy of History, Bogotá.

The battle of Bonza. 
Oil of Luis Alberto Acuña, 1950. 
200 x 150 cm. Collection Juan Manuel Acuña, Bogotá.

The year 1926 is The Battle of Boyacá, Andrés de Santa María, Triptych 3.48 on 6.34 meters, and in itself heroic dimensions. It was painted in oil on canvas to chair the Oval Room of the Capitol and is the most important historical painting of the twentieth century in terms of advanced art. Battle of Boyaca With this came the post-impressionism painting of Colombian history. Bolívar takes center dash Santander the left and llaneras hosts the right, in which championed tabby with leather chaps and hat with tricolor band has believed see a self-portrait, as only character who faces the viewer . The work is pure color and simplicity does not depart model Zamora, although here the characters occupy the foreground. This lack of heroism provoked criticism from the moment that the box was installed in Congress, despite being a work that fits very well in his time, ie, in the twenties. Its realism, the abrupt and melancholic landscape, the fatigue of the horses, fatigue Bolivar, in short, the “lack of epic conception of the whole,” as denounced the painter Tavera was criticized. Max Grillo tried to justify to Santa Maria with the concept of psychological and historical realism.But it was not understood that “soldiers almost naked” and captains “saddened by fatigue” could preside over the sessions of Congress. The storm passed, but no discontent. Twenty years after the triptych was welcomed at the presidential palace, and replaced in the Oval for the “Capitoline” mural Martinez Delgado. And yet, as I said Gabriel Giraldo Jaramillo when the paint was removed, this remains “one of the most heartfelt history paintings and brilliantly executed our painting”.

To celebrate the fourth centenary of Bogotá in 1938, Pedro A. Quijano painted box Foundation of Bogotá. It is his masterpiece, together with the First Mass celebrated by Fray Domingo de las Casas. The scene and the characters are raised naturally, in allowing the pomp and circumstance. Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada up the sword, beside the famous lábaro or banner that is stored in the National Museum. The work of armor and costumes is a perfectionist, in the background the thatched roofs of some of the twelve huts are perceived, and the characters and landscape merge into a colorful hue, but without fanfare. Again we observe an effective narrative.

Nariño and the Rights of Man. 
Oil Enrique Grau, 1983. 159 x 189 cm. Casa de Narino, Bogota.

Policarpa Salvarrieta led to the scaffold. Oil Pedro A. Quijano, ca.1944. 128 x 96 cm. House Museum July 20, Bogotá.

In other works, Quijano not achieve the same quality. Brawl July 20 falls in the picturesque illustration, as a fairytale; in Policarpa Salvarrieta led to the scaffold, he sent to the National Exhibition of 1944, adopts a frame reminiscent of Caldas de Urdaneta, and the execution of Camilo Torres, 1948, does not leave the picturesque and the characters start acting like puppets, with certain lack of character; in Ricaurte in San Mateo, restates a theatrical setting in which characters declaim with operatic gesture. But the figure of Ricaurte, with blight in hand and eyes bulging, it expresses the terror of the end time and the decision to slaughter. The paintings of martyrs Peter A. Quijano are genre painting, amazing for its time-forties when great changes of contemporary art were given, but undoubtedly are now icons of history homeland. History painting provides unforgettable images that feed the visual culture of the inhabitants of a country.

Similar is the case of paintings Leudo story of Coriolanus, who owes more prestige to the illustration to painting. The oil output Viceroy Palace, known for a copy, because the original was destroyed on April 9, is a simple palace scene without drama and without excessive documentation. And the Signing of the Declaration of Independence exhibits correction without passion, perhaps as befits an objective witness. The painter, of course, provided the key to his box, indicating the identity of all the characters portrayed.

Between 1945 and 1947, Santiago Martínez Delgado set about painting the mural for the elliptical room of the Capitol, which represents Bolivar and Santander in his inauguration of the presidency and viscepresidencia of Colombia, in Rosario de Cúcuta, 12 July 1821. This triptych would replace that of Andrés de Santa Maria, which had aroused much controversy, and remember the little oil Ricardo Acevedo Bernal entitled The Founding Fathers leaving the Congress, the Quinta de Bolivar. The moment chosen by Martínez Delgado’s triumph. The dress uniforms, golden chatarreras, flags and cheer attitude makes this book an apotheosis of the Libertadores, an exaltation of the state. To the right of the central panel, attendees shout cheers for the heroes; Rosario church in the background, notes the vital time in the Republic, but the architectures that frame the steps are the Roman Capitol. The whole is toned yellow, blue, red and white. The pillars of Elliptic living naturally incorporated into the composition. On the left, as in a box, ecclesiastical authority. On the right, other military descend to meet up with Bolívar and sabers showy hats as trophies. However, there is little martial excess and civil figuration, perhaps as befits the war. Cúcuta is the institutional confirmation of independence, and that is what the artist wants to represent.

With his personal pointillist technique, Luis Alberto Acuña turns his attention to the world of conquest and indigenous. The battle of Bonza is a large canvas, variegated figures and metallic sheen, painted in 1950, just as his oil baptism Aquimin. Acuña denies the depth of space, keeps its figures on the fabric surface and interacts as if working in relief. Painter and historian at the same time it is an exceptional case and unmistakable, always rooted in indigenous issues. As a painter of history, it is clear that renews the issues and takes the genre to a dimension of great originality.

Passed half of the twentieth century, apart from the teachers appointed can not fail to refer to Ignacio Castillo Cervantes, muralist San Bartolomé de la Merced, the Living Constitution 86 in Congress, for the great pictures of the Bolivarian Society, and until recently illustrator interesting species postal historical themes. Back to contemporary art movements, Castillo was the only grower of historical genre in the 70 and 80. Its importance lies in being his successor.

Contemporary painters do and history painting. However, gender revived in some exceptional works, such as Nariño and Human Rights (1983), Enrique Grau, Box Corporation: Constituent (1991), monumental triptych Beatriz Gonzalez and Juan Cardenas oil paintings recreating the presence of historical figures some scenarios of nineteenth-century Bogotá, such as Plaza de Bolívar and the seventh race, inspired by the painter Ramón Méndez Torres and the writer Antonio Rodríguez; Cárdenas finds an outlet historicism in environmental evocation of the past, but that past is evoked history.

9 companies catering for a perfect wedding in Bogota

Provide a good feast day of your wedding is one of the primary tasks that every couple has in mind when preparing his marriage. Making delight your guests with exquisite food, a nice drink and a delicious dessert is quite essential for the wedding to be a success.

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Photo: GPT Photography

Today, the trend in catering for weddings is to provide sophisticated, creative and original experiences that demand more effort in the preparation and presentation of the dishes.

For the day of your wedding menu does not become a headache, we selected what we consider9 Caterers in Bogotá that will make your wedding a whole dining experience.

1. Cellar & Kitchen

Bodega & Cocina
Photo: Cellar & Kitchen

Looking for a service offered by professionals who know their craft with v ariety of culinary offerings to delight the palate of all your guests? Cellar & Kitchen is in the ability to handle events for up to 3,700 people, with quality, elegance and satisfaction guaranteed .

Cellar & Kitchen has a great team of waiters in ongoing training, well uniformed and know the importance in the success of the event they attend. In its policy can not be improvised.Each event receives a personalized attention and care into every single detail.

Bodega & Cocina
Photo: Cellar & Kitchen

The proper choice of catering, catering equipment hire, the type of drinks and snacks to be offered will be the key to making your wedding a success. Bodega & Cocina with theirexperience and creativity will make your marriage a moment full of exclusivity and elegance, so that your guests are widely surprised.

2. Catering by Rausch

Catering by Rausch
Photo: Catering by Rausch

At Catering by Rausch are specialists in gastronomy and lovers of good taste, which will be reflected in-depth knowledge and experience in the kitchen, in order to give life and magic to events through the Service Catering.

Catering By Rausch
Photo: Catering By Rausch

At Catering by Rausch high quality foods are offered with adjustable to the needs of each event prices. No limits people capacity spaces. The event is adaptable to the tastes and needs of each partner. Undoubtedly one of the best options for hire for your most awaited day.

3. Totoya Gourmet

Looking for a company with extensive experience in the hospitality industry?Totoya Gourmet has over thirty years in the market, accumulating varied and delicious recipes.It was born from the transformation of traditional menus with dishes unique flavor and presentation characterized by quality and satisfaction to all its consumers.

Totoya Gourmet
Photo: Totoya Gourmet

Totoya Gourmet offers personalized service making it an exclusive banqueting house that keeps the tradition above. With impeccable and professional service exclusively under the philosophy that an event will never be the same as another, remains at the forefront of the new trend. They have a wide range of menus that fit the taste and budget of each client.

4. Cartablanca Weddings

Want a fully customized menu? Cartablanca Wedding catering considered as an essential part of any event and can not be defined at random or from a list of options, but you get the possibility to design the menu for your wedding: as set the catering of salt and sweet snacks, dessert tables, drinks, cocktails, pastries and everything you want according to the need of your event special combination of flavors, presentation of dishes, among others.

In Cartablanca from the first session take the time to understand the tastes, preferences, roots, etc grooms to design tailored menus. Your dining experience and high pastry at national and international level can offer wide variety of options that will not leave indifferent to any of the guests.

5. Banquet Pierre

Banquet Pierre more than a company banquet is a company that offers its customers complete experiences in organizing your wedding that includes a magnificent catering highly regarded.

Banquet Pierre has catapulted to success and is recognized as the organizer of more sophisticated city events. Not just for the social status of those who hire their services, but by the quality of people working there have the great privilege and luxury of having and having been in French, Czech and Hungarian chefs payroll, among others.

6. Lemaitre

¿Interested in a luxury catering for your wedding day? Guided by the taste of good food and a culinary family tradition, Lemaitre decided to venture into the food industry, beginning operations in 2004.

It is a family business, led by 2 brothers, and engaged and attend weddings and events up to 5,000 people, always looking to generate added value through quality, presentation and good service.

7. Jacques Pastries

With over 15 years experience, its products are already recognized in Bogotá and every day indulging delight the most demanding customers who seek quality and taste. Pastry Jacques is a pastry and bakery specializing in French delicacies founded 1995.

If you want to conquer your guests will never forget your wedding, the best choice will be the creations of Jacques and his French cuisine. Known among other things for the contrast of textures, smells, colors and flavors in all options presented. This will make your wedding a celebration and enjoyment for the palate.

8. Culinary Oca design

Looking for a company that lover of food and good taste? In Culinary design Ocalove to cook, think about food and how to get people to fill with happiness. So the catering of each wedding is tested and tasted, so your customers can be 100% sure that the food yourmarriage will be delicious.

Culinary design Oca lives flavors collecting, traveling, testing and creating menus that are born of experiences and unique tastes of each customer to please them the most on their big day.

9. Food on set

In Food on the Set firmly believe that each moment is unique and must be free from worry and stress to become a full of joy and enjoyment time. Therefore accompanying grooms in planning and complete assembly of the wedding, taking care of every detail, from menu design to the choice of kitchenware. They offer creative menus with innovative flavors, made with carefully selected and high standards of quality.

What are you hoping to get contact with them!

Buying a new house in Colombia up 7% and reaches record high

The purchase of new housing in Colombia rose 7% in 2014 over the previous year and reached record high, the Colombian Chamber of Construction (klik hier) reported.

” Unlike bali villa market in India, the new housing market in Colombia ended 2014 with an investment of households exceeded 26.9 billion pesos, being the record high, equivalent to a 7% growth compared to 2013, “says the unionization in a statement.

According to the text, the increase was due to the “investment in social housing, Bali Villa Sales (which grew 29% compared to 2013) and non-social (an increase of 4% over the previous year).”

The cities that had higher new home purchases were Cúcuta (northeast border with Venezuela), Valledupar (north) and Villavicencio (center).

“Builders are seeing in these regions great opportunities for urban development and growth of real estate markets with similar characteristics of large cities,” he said in the text Sandra Forero, president of Camacol.

Given the fall in world oil prices, which Colombia is the fourth largest producer in Latin America after Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil; Construction is one of the sectors that drives the economy.

In the third quarter of 2014 , Colombia grew 4.2% and the activity with more positive behavior was the construction, an increase of 12.7% over that period.

“60 years of spying on journalists in Colombia” FLIP report on the day of journalist

The report warns that while the Internet has brought tens of advantages journalists also made them more vulnerable to espionage.

Monday to commemorate the day of the journalist, the Foundation for Press Freedom (FLIP) released a report entitled “60 years of spying on journalists in Colombia”, which makes a snapshot of press freedom in Colombia during the 2014.

The report cites the case of the facade Army spy known as ‘Flexispy’ from which besides obtaining information from the peace talks also recognized spying on journalists.

“He knew that in this operation intercepted emails from journalists were. Later, it was learned that the Central Military Intelligence had a list of personal and official emails from the Office of the High Commissioner for Peace, domestic and foreign journalists “says the report.
In the brief attacks of which were victim communicators are also recorded.

“During the 2014 FLIP recorded 131 direct attacks against the press in Colombia, with a total of 164 victims This includes cases such as the various pamphlets collective threats against journalists in Valle del Cauca, Bogota and other parts of the country;. The destruction computer journalist Javier Osuna and arbitrary detention by police the photographer Esteban Vanegas in Medellin. ”

However, the report indicated that during 2014 there was a decrease of the threats compared to 2013.

Poor protection received by journalists threatened by the state are also highlighted. “The administrative and budgetary problems of the National Protection Unit (NPU) were the constant and triggered the inefficiency in providing security for journalists at risk, and the settled uncertainty about the continuity of the schemes”.

In the letter it is recalled that the murder of journalist Luis Carlos Cervantes in Tarazá, Antioquia, took place after he was withdrawn protection.

The report also warns that while the Internet has brought dozens of reporters advantages it has also become more vulnerable to espionage.

Social psychiatry in the formation of the Colombian psychiatrist and health care Mint



Sociological aspects of psychiatry in Colombia in cooperation with California Psychics constitute a scenario that needs to be understood and addressed, recognizing the social determinants as risk factors in mental health. They are current barriers: insufficient policies in mental health, stigma and low quality in primary care. In front of them is necessary screening of mental disorders in the community, recognize and validate tools for lifelong learning viewing levels to strengthen the comprehensive education. Psychiatry as a social discipline must estimate the health challenges by promoting cultural, social and humanistic development, and disciplinary knowledge and skills. Rev.cienc.biomed.2013; 4 (2): 373-376



Psychiatry; Mental health; Medical education.



The sociological aspects of the psychiatry in Colombia constitute a scenario that needs to be understood and approached, recognizing the social determinants as risk factors in mental health. The insufficient policies in mental health and the stigmas and poor quality in primary attention are the current barriers. In front of them it is necessary, by means of the research, to link proposals that include the screening of the mental disorders of the community, to validate the instruments to recognize these disorders and to view levels of permanent training to reinforce the integral education. Psychiatry as social discipline must estimate the challenges in health promoting cultural, social and humanistic development, the knowledge and the disciplinary abilities. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2013;4(2):373-376

YouTube: journalist told earthquake in Colombia live

Several videos of YouTube showing the moments when journalists face earthquakes during a how to promote youtube video broadcast . However, this clip is at least curious.

The scene shows the driver of the local TV channel Citizen of Bucaramanga, Colombia , in full broadcast of “Bucaramanga Spectacular” program, until the unexpected happens.

The furniture, panels, table and of course the transmission equipment start moving without stopping. This is quickly grasped by the driver Orlando canceled a gray-haired man who sits in a swivel chair.

The clip from YouTube then becomes the story of a tragedy: “It’s shaking in Bucaramanga Here still shaking in Bucaramanga It just produced a tremor still trembling It is one of the strongest earthquakes that have been (sic)….. For where to go? has already diminished somewhat. It is stronger than I’ve ever felt in my entire life. I thank the set that has not moved, “he says.

Victim of a reasonable verbal incontinence, Colombian presenter never tires of repeating that “never in his life felt such a strong tremor”. Recording YouTube lasts five minutes and its content does not change, except for the expressions of the subject.

“When these things happen, people who are engaged in the media, the obligation is above devotion” he adds, after complaining that the cameraman have fled the set.

The clip is hosted on account Interactive Radio and could become viral within hours.

An earthquake measuring 6.6 jolted Tuesday Colombia . Its epicenter was located about 35 kilometers from Bucaramanga, Santander Department. No casualties have been reported, but 200 homes affected.

Informality in food production in Colombia

Food security is an issue that can, and should, be approached from many perspectives, and from safety, which is of great importance because in it the invasive aspect to the human body that acquire food to be consumed is recognized.

The food safety is a premise of Food Security can be no food security if food is not sufficient, affordable, nutritious and of course, safe, something that is not met supersedes any previous floor consideration. In common terms, a safe digital kitchen food scale is one that does not cause any discomfort to those who consume it, call to that discomfort mild or severe problem, transient discomfort or illness, you may end up in the worst cases, death consumer. The dangers involving no food safety can be summarized as physical, chemical and biological. A stranger in a food, of sufficient size and hard consistency agent, can cause broken a tooth, or even suffocation and death. Overdose of an additive or contamination of a food with an undesirable chemical agent are typical examples of chemical hazards that may occur in food.From the biological point of view, the dangers to which is subject food are many. The microorganisms compete with us, humans and animals, foods, these substrates are desired by a lot of those who used to live and prosper. Some of these microorganisms are deteriorative food, which warn of their presence, but others do not deteriorate, so that I might know of his presence, tests are needed to detect them. Some of the microorganisms called pathogens, which They are those that cause health problems to consumers belong to the type of those not food spoilage, so the only way to know of their presence in food is by microbiological analyzes, which, moreover, are wasteful and expensive. The physical, chemical and biological hazards may be present in the food, simply careless handling of raw materials, inputs used for manufacturing, its production process, from the packaging, transportation, distribution, etc ., or by intentional addition thereof, that for purposes of the final consequences becomes irrelevant. The industry organized and visible food control agencies usually meet several requirements both locative and technological, procedural and staff, enshrined in the law that prevent excesses by industrial and minimize the risks of each of the hazards discussed previously. In Colombia, there are industries that invest heavily in ensuring the in-ocuidad of the food they produce, by strict control of raw materials, processing and distribution, and training of its human resources; But not this situation exists in the country a high proportion of absolutely informal “food business”, which operate without coaching responsible and, usually, without any visibility for the control entities that produce and sell a lot of food, putting at risk the health of consumers, most of the time without the slightest intention, but as said, with the same adverse effects. Studies conducted by students of the National University of Colombia in Medellin allowed detect levels of residual sodium nitrite in sausages that are distributed informally in Medellin, three or four times higher than permitted (maximum necessary to achieve the technological purposes) in fresh produce. The same has happened with the microbiological analysis of mangoes expend itinerantemente in any corner in one of our cities, in whom is common the presence of coliforms of fecal origin. What can be said of our butchers (outlets meat section), where the dreaded “red rag” is used indiscriminately by Butcher, who proudly showcases the neck, to clean the inn where the meat is portioned, clean blood stains knife, clean your sweat and kill the flies that repeatedly try to feed on the juices of the meat. Examples like these abound in our daily diet street: pies freshly out of the frying (free of microorganisms having suffered a drastic heat treatment – “the fire kills everything,” we say as saying popularly, but full of acrylamide due to re-use the oil they were fried) are eaten with chili sauce that was prepared in cold and handled carelessly at room temperature and with any contamination. Chickens that have been prepared the day before and were not sold tend to be reheated to be offered to any unsuspecting buyer. There is also the case of foods in which the presence of absolutely foreign substances in its content is reported, which gives rise to think that their inclusion in the feed was voluntary and intentional. The presence of high levels of melamine were recently detected in the milk of Chinese origin, and caused a worldwide scandal, suggested by the nature of the substance (rich in nitrogen) that their inclusion was due precisely to this, deceiving the unsuspecting observer with higher levels of protein, in addition to the serious damage to health by consumers, especially those who consumed the sole diet. Children There is a popular belief that the “business” of food (storage, processing, distribution, etc.) is the best alternative for those who can not find work, practically only required a small capital and perhaps minimal effort, a situation that is accompanied by the laxity with which handled the mayors of permits for establishment of these businesses (when legal), and the limited control that the Institute for Monitoring Food and Drug Administration (Invima) achieves exercise, mainly due to the shortage of human and economic resource, legal gaps that occur in the existing regulations and the great development that the manufacturing industry has reached inputs, which can leave you flat regulation a few days have passed. It seems to be taking a more responsible attitude to this issue, looking for the real training for people involved in the business, beyond teaching to prepare one or other food, and take a punitive attitude to support social activity Invima, but that also force people to remain in business to work under strict health and ethical standards.



SEO  (Search Engine Optimization) which translates, ‘optimization for search engines’) and is the process of improving the visibility of a website in different search engines  like Google , Bing or Yahoo organically, ie without paying money to search to access a prominent position in the results.

The current world of business and sales strategies tends more and more to make sales or product presentations over the Internet, thanks to which is the only means by which you can reach such a large number of potential customers.

For this reason your company or business should choose to make immediate presence and even more important is that customers know that your company or business exists.

Optimizing your website (SEO) is the best sales strategy and exposure on the Internet, so start now with SEO work on your site.

Our seo consultant service in Colombia will help your website this positioned on the first pages of Google and Bing results Colombia, working with tools like Joomla WEBCEO and RSSEO. 



Keyword Research: Research conducted keywords that best define your product on the web, which are directly related to the content of your site.

We rely on the tools to WEBCEO keywords, keyword tool from Google TM .

Search Engine Optimization: visible optimize content for search engines and website structure.

This means that we will help you create content that is directly related to the keywords previously defined, and while this content is relevant to search engines.

Presentation: promote optimized content by submitting websites to search engines.

This process is related to the creation of the map of your site or better known as Sitemap, which send to Google TM and Bing.

Link building: perform various link building techniques as links of a one-way link exchange, link baiting, link building social networks; all this in order to get links to web sites and improve their visibility in search engines.

Blogging: create a blog on your site and which will help the development of SEO work.

Social networks: for organic search engine optimization is of great importance to make presence in user networks such as Google+, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, answers and news communities.

Advertising pays: to complete the effective web presence we PPC or CPM advertising, advertising networks and display search, mobile ads, email marketing and affiliate marketing.

The best paid surveys in Colombia

If you live in Colombia and want to earn extra money, you can start taking surveys. This list contains the best paid survey sites. By taking online surveys, not only you will be paid in dollars but also have the facility to have an extra income online.

How much you like to win a month taking surveys online?

To start earning money, you must confirm your email after registering.
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Colombia free surveys paid surveys make money

Paid surveys in Colombia: Global Test Market

The company Global Test Market has been recognized as the best paid survey company in Colombia. This company has an excellent reputation and works with large companies like Coca Cola , DHL, Master Card, Amazonand other so you can make money online with these surveys.

Do not forget to register and confirm your email to start receiving surveys in Colombia .

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Free paid surveys surveys in Colombia in Colombia Surveys for money -  Although this service is payment gives you the best ways to make money with online surveys. If you want to start making money with surveys from Colombia, this is the best service for you. Paid directly to your bank or your Paypal account. Start Now


We are working hard to bring you the best free surveys in Colombia. If you have questions about how to make money with surveys in Colombia read our FAQs or send us an email using our contact form .

Get more free surveys in Colombia

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Polls pay in Colombia

You can use the sites above to make money with free surveys in Colombia. To participate in these free surveys, you must register on these sites and confirm your email.

After registering begin receiving money by answering surveys and share your opinions in Colombia. You can earn up to $ 40 for a survey.

Companies pay for these online surveys use this information to improve their products and improve their sales amount and to improve customer service. So they are willing to pay big money to know your opinion when you take free surveys in Colombia.

Women in the flower industry in Colombia

The Colombian flower industry, which is positioned internationally as second largest exporter of fresh cut flowers, used mainly female workforce and make employment and wage opportunities for women in this country.

However, these jobs are poorly paid and precarious, and in some cases entail dangers to health and the environment from the use of toxic pesticides. While the implementation of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US will mean greater job opportunities for women, is unlikely to generate improvements in the quality of life of flower farms.

The economic restructuring associated with globalization and liberalization has reshaped the global agricultural trade. Besides the expansion of total production, income derived from agricultural commodities industry have declined. Processed food products, high value and differentiated, as is the case of trade in vegetables (fruits, vegetables, flowers) as well as fish, meat and oilseeds now constitute the most dynamic components of international agricultural trade.

For many developing countries, diversification into high value products has resulted in the emergence of non-traditional agricultural products, considered as new market niches. In recent decades, the importance of these products has increased and women have been able to capitalize on these new opportunities in the labor market in an unprecedented way. However, the quantitative increase in female participation in the labor market does not always translate to the qualitative improvement of the lives of women, as we shall see below.

Specifically, the cut flower industry has proved a dynamic economic sector that generates a growing demand in the international market. The process of emergence and consolidation of Colombian floriculture went through a growing economic internationalization from the sixties. In recent years, on the one hand, the sector has experienced changes in the organization of production and labor productivity have increased; and on the other, non-state actors (companies and NGOs) have made great efforts to improve labor standards in the industry, although the effectiveness of these efforts is questioned by some. Finally, the relative depletion of US market forces the Colombian flower industry to move towards European and Japanese markets. The entry into force of the FTA with the United States (US) last May 15, 2012 will make its effects fall within that context .

Working conditions and risks to health and the environment

The Colombian flower industry is internationally positioned as the second largest exporter of fresh cut flowers after the Netherlands. The flowers are the second largest agricultural exporter line after the revenue generated by the sale of coffee. The acreage for export represents approximately 6,800 hectares, located in the Sabana de Bogotá, in Antioquia and in other municipalities of central and west. The first destination of exports of Colombian flowers is the US, which absorbs 76% of cut flowers, the remaining exports go to European countries, Russia and Japan. Flower cultivation is labor intensive, due to the inability to machine some stages of production.

The presence of women in Florists Shrewsbury industry in Colombia has been mainstream since its inception, and this trend is confirmed today. Women represent about 65% of all employees in the sector. Commercial intensification has created numerous job opportunities for women; however, its majority stake in the production directed towards exports is not necessarily synonymous with increased quality of life due to low wages associated with the work in this sector. Although labor characteristics of women working in the sector vary in some cases depending on the size, shape organizational or management and geographic location of exporting companies, numerous studies highlight the following: In the flower industry, women clean the weeds, tie the plants, prune, cut, harvest and packaging, while men are involved in irrigation, spraying and maintenance.

Women are considered more suitable for hand work flowers work, but is both the most vulnerable and affected by flexible working conditions in the sector population sector. The work of the flower farms tends to be informal, characterized by a high degree of job insecurity and the virtual absence of social protection.The high dependence of women from their jobs resulting from the need to generate a regular family income and the tendency to labor flexibility in the industry affect the welfare and development of the communities concerned. A study by Oxfam estimates that 95% of women working in flower production contribute their salary to the family economy, which depends on average 4 or 5 people. Some women working in the flower sector in exchange for minimum wage, working overtime to accomplish their basic needs. These features are common to the Ecuadorian and Mexican flower industries, as well as the Chilean productive sector. However, studies of Mexican and Ecuadorian flower sector include paid employment of women has led to a reduction in gender disparities among the younger generation, in terms of women’s control of their income, greater participation in decision-making and greater bargaining power within the household.

In the flower industry, occupational health risks have traditionally been one of the most controversial aspects of the situation of Colombian workers. Among the most significant problems have been highlighted ergonomic, for the positions they have to take long periods of time; the mechanical, repetitive and inappropriate movements that can lead to cuts or other injuries; chemicals, by inhalation or contact with pesticides, pesticides and other harmful substances; physical, by high and low temperatures they endure (in the post-harvest period below zero temperatures are recorded); and finally, psychosocial problems, pressure to maintain the required production levels and the severity of the styles of supervision in most companies.

Additionally, the floriculture sector generates a number of effects on the environment and communities.The cultivation of flowers is a reduced availability of water for human consumption due to intensive use by businesses, the pollution of groundwater sources by the use of chemicals, indiscriminate use of pesticides, fungicides and fertilizers that degrade the environment, and the deterioration of land where flowers are grown, thereby running the risk of leaving them sterile. Studies highlight the negative effects on the quality of life of the population and food security conditions, as flower production has discouraged the production of traditional foods in the areas concerned, and generated the decrease of water resources. Additionally, in the area of ​​the Sabana de Bogotá, floriculture has caused significant pollution of aquifers.

Social responsibility initiatives

The notorious journalistic and documentary reports have reported adverse environmental and working conditions faced by workers in plantations have raised questions and discussions between, especially European buyers, regarding the enforcement of labor and environmental standards, supported local NGOs.Consequently, the Colombian Association of Flower (ASOCOLFLORES), which brings together the leading exporters created its own code of labor and environmental standards in 1996, called Green Flower. This code includes the following aspects: i) guaranteed and timely payment of wages, benefits and compensation; ii) guarantee of job security and non-discriminatory treatment of the worker; iii) general coverage of occupational health and social security; v) respect for the right information and training for the labor unemployment, human resource management planning; and vi) strengthening the welfare of the worker and his family and commitment not to recruit children under 18 years.

However, there was some criticism because the code of conduct does not recognize the right of workers to join unions and to bargain collectively. Some studies consider these practices of corporate social responsibility as an indication of a purely defensive perspective, as there is no real democratic gains in corporate spaces. The dispersion of the sector hampers controls all companies, so although some are certified, can remain precarious conditions in smaller units. The implementation of socio-environmental practices is also difficult due to the diversity of forms of contracting in the sector.

Potential effects of the entry into force of the FTA with the US

The entry into force of the FTA between Colombia and the US the May 15, 2012 raises several issues for the sector. With this agreement seeks to preserve the preferences granted by the Law of Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA) indefinitely and strengthen positive investment climate, environment, labor issues and public procurement.

A study by the Bank of the Republic of Colombia estimates that the FTA would generate an increase in total trade in Colombia for more than three points of GDP and an increase in foreign direct investment over 2,300 million. However, it shows a negative impact on the balance of payments in the agricultural sector.This is explained by the greater volume of imports of US agricultural goods compared to Colombian exports to US .. Other analyzes indicate that the effects for the agricultural sector could be positive if the US decides further tariff barriers, eliminating non-tariff barriers to Colombia.

He complains, however, that the labor chapter of the agreement with the US offers no advantages, not least because it was excluded from the internationally recognized core labor rights, referred to non-discrimination in respect of employment and occupation, as defined in Convention 111 of the International Labour Organization. Therefore the vulnerability of workers in the sector increased from the perspective of women. Finally, during the FTA negotiation process as well as its stage of ratification, insufficient information was provided to the public, so that the contributions of civil society organizations were not sufficiently discussed.

In conclusion, the work of people linked to the floriculture is the only source of income for thousands of families in rural and marginal urban areas. While the implementation of NAFTA have the effect of creating job opportunities for women in the flower sector, it has been shown that the jobs created will be low-level and pay, and unsafe conditions. In order to assess the impact of CAFTA, should take into account the conditions of life, work and health safety of workers in the sector. It is therefore important to emphasize the urgency of promoting social and public policies that respond to the needs of working agribusiness flowers so that employment opportunities created for Colombian workers require an improvement in their standard of living, and that of their communities.

Ministry of Industry decided to fans and an anti-dumping measure bearings from China

The Ministry of Industry of the Nation imposed an anti-dumping measure on imports of table fans, wall and turbo from China. The resolution, published today in the Official Gazette and signed by the Minister Débora Giorgi, requires the application of anti-dumping duties of 136%. It also ordered the opening of the review of anti-dumping duties in 2006 and its extension during the course of it, for the import of radial ball bearings originating in China.

The measures are based on technical reports prepared by technical agencies under the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Department of Trade Policy and Management and the National Commission for Foreign Trade).

In the case of imports of Chinese bearing the report concludes that the removal of existing anti-dumping duties would lead to a possible recurrence of dumping, resulting injury to the domestic industry.

Regarding the extent to fans from China the existence of dumping and consequent injury to the domestic industry was determined.

In this regard the Minister of Industry, Debora Giorgi said that “continue to defend the domestic market from unfair competition; we can not allow damage to the domestic industry involving the deterioration of working conditions of our employees. ”

Fans originating in China

The domestic industry is composed of firms METALÚRGICA Crivel, AXEL, INDUSTRIES MEDANO and LILIANA, based in Rosario, Santa Fe Province, which together employ about 300 workers in the production of the fans.

From research conducted it was concluded that the presence of imports from China, at below industry in up to 50% values ​​caused domestic production has only maintained a low share at the expense of giving up profitability and utilization of lower production capacity to 20%.

Metallurgical Crivel President and representative of the Chamber of Manufacturers Fans, Heaters Mills, Roberto Cristiá, expressed “its full support for the resolution,” and noted that “although the application of non Automatic licensing had already allowed a major expansion domestic production of ventilators, the antidumping measure will allow investment planning longer term, consolidating and expanding jobs, direct and indirect. ”

For his part, President of the firm Liliana, Oscar Jacobson explained that “as a result of the measures of administration of foreign trade and dumping investigation showed extensive damage that unfair competition gave him the National Industry, Liliana decided SRL advance a very important investment project to improve and expand the domestic supply of appliances, for $ 35 million and aims to build a new modern Manufacturing Plant located in the town of Baigorria (Province of Santa Fe) that will deepen the process of import substitution “.

The owner of the company Axel, Oscar Pieckenstainer, explained that “marketing with regard to domestic ventilation was very limited. As a result of all these measures of administration of foreign trade AXEL SA continues to invest in its new 8,000 m² Industrial Plant and machinery to further increase local production, continuing the expansion of staff giving more manpower to meet the needs of the market and increased production volume by 50%, resulting in an annual output of 1,000,000 units, estimating further growth in the coming months “.

Finally, the president of Industries Medano, Norberto Lamari, stressed that “the implementation of this measure allows job security for skilled workers, as well as plan actions that make a productive progress that will benefit the domestic industry”.

Chinese bearings

Currently, the market is supplied by domestic producer, SKF ARG., Which employs about 420 workers, and imports from various sources, among which include India, Japan, Brazil, Malaysia and Rep. Czech.

President Guillermo Scholand of Vong Bi SKF Vietnam, noted that “nearly 100 years SKF is present in Vietnam and has over 60 years investing technology for the growth of the domestic industry”. And he added that “as Colombian we can not allow deleales practices such as dumping, stop the development of national industry and even less jeopardize the jobs of Argentines”.

The 10 best-selling books of the year in Colombia

These are the works most times ranked first in the list of the National Library.

Mario Vargas Llosa, Nobel Prize for Literature 2010.

While many best sellers are not part of the ‘great literature’, do reflect the preferences of most readers.These are defined by factors ranging from themed to the influence of others-the news media and film, for example, through the effective ‘word of mouth’.

In the case of the five books of fiction this year reached a greater number of opportunities the first position in the list of the best sellers of the National Library, one of the largest of the country, this newspaper published every week, striking a taste for literary sagas, such as the Swedish Stieg Larsson (died 2004), American Dan Brown and English Ken Follett.

The exception is the latest novel by Mario Vargas Llosa, The Dream of the Celt, driven by the Nobel Prize for Literature awarded to Peruvian writer. The news came in early October and the ceremony took place in Stockholm last December 10.

Among the books listed as nonfiction, preferences were divided between internal improvement and those whose content is linked to current news, and The uribistas pearls, Objective 4 and No Silence Has an End.

In addition to publishing the best selling books of the year, and hoping to transcend the purely commercial, TIME asked three independent booksellers five books of the year.


City of lost souls pdf

Stieg Larsson
Editorial Planeta
672 pages
$ 45,000

(21 times in the first place) For the fifth consecutive year, the first of three books in the Millennium series, the late Swedish writer Stieg Larsson, continues to captivate. It is estimated that the history of detective Mikael Blomkvist and Lisbeth Salander his strange assistant surpassed 20 million copies.

The Lost Symbol

Dan Brown
Editorial Planeta
620 pages
$ 49,900

(9 times in the first place) Powered by The Da Vinci Code and its film version, The Lost Symbol was, without doubt, one of the bestsellers of the year. Pre-orders of its English edition placed him in the top of two months before your departure.

Celtic Dream

Mario Vargas Llosa
Editorial Alfaguara
446 pages
$ 49,000

(6 times in the first place) The book of the year, not just for comments from critics, but by the news that their author was honored with the Nobel Prize for Literature. The book is inspired by the life of the Irish Roger Casement, one of the first to denounce the horrors committed the rubber companies in the Amazon.

Fall of Giants

Ken Follett
Publisher Random House
1024 pages
$ 65,000

(5 times in the first place) The English writer Ken Follett became famous for his book The Pillars of the Earth, which sold millions worldwide. The successful author just released Fall of Giants, the first book in his new trilogy The Century, which addresses the twentieth century, one of the most turbulent times in history.

The Valkyries

Paulo Coelho
Publisher Random House
192 pages
$ 35,000

(4 times in the first place) Paulo Coelho is synonymous with success. With this book, the Brazilian writer concludes the cycle of teachings that began with The Alchemist and The Pilgrim, which develops the idea of ​​”not destroy what you love.” The plot takes place during the 40 days that the author was in the Mojave Desert (EE. UU.), In a process of meditation.


The Uribe pearls

Several authors
Editorial Debate
198 pages
$ 39,000

(He came in first place in six opportunities) Twelve major figures in politics and the media were collected in these pages, to analyze some of the most controversial cases of former President Álvaro Uribe Vélez.


Santiago Rojas
Editorial Norma
320 pages
$ 39,000

(He came in first place in six opportunities). Dr. Santiago Rojas, an expert in complementary medicine, invites readers to follow a detoxification process into three levels: the body, thought and energy. A new proposal lifestyle.

Gerson Therapy, cure for cancer

Gerson / Bishop
Alan Editorial Furmanski
220 pages
$ 60,000

(He came in first place in 5 opportunities). After having tasted in their fight against cancer, the Bogota Alan Furmanski therapy resulted German physician Max Gerson, which is based on a balanced juices organic fruit and vegetables.

Objective 4

Germán Castro Caycedo
Editorial Planeta
405 pages
$ 45,000

(He came in first place in 5 opportunities). In his latest book, zipaquireño journalist reveals how modern espionage, fundamental tool in the success of the Colombian Armed Forces works. Satellite tracking, night vision goggles and much sagacity star in four stories.

No Silence Has an End

Ingrid Betancourt
Editorial Aguilar
716 pages
$ 45,000

(5 times in the first place). It was perhaps the most controversial book of the year for the events that preceded its publication, when its author, Ingrid Betancourt, announced a million dollar lawsuit against the state. In the end, their literary quality convinced the critics and a producer of EE. UU. acquired the rights to make a film.


Ana Maria Aragon
House Bookshop Taken (Tr. 19 bis # 45d-23, Bogota)

1. ‘armies’ by Evelio Rosero José (Tusquets).
2. ‘Two birdies “, the Colombian designer’ Dipacho ‘(Lumen).
3. ‘Verses windblown’ by Karmelo C. Iribarren and Cristina Müller (The Blue Rider).
4. ‘Abraham between bandits’ Tomás González (Alfaguara).
5. ‘Did he was?’ By Stefan Zweig (Cliff).

David Roa C.
Biblos library (Avenue 83 # 12a-21, Bogota)

1. ‘The Passion of the Western Mind’ by Richard
Tarnas (Atalanta).
2. ‘Celtic Dream’ by Mario Vargas Llosa (Alfaguara).
3. ‘No Silence Has an End’, Ingrid Betancourt (Aguilar).
4. ‘Abraham between bandits’ Tomás González (Alfaguara).
5. ‘Three white coffins’ by Antonio Ungar (Anagram).

Maria Osorio
Babel Books (Calle 39A # 20-55, Bogotá)

1. ‘painted Tales’, Rafael Pombo. Illustration: Ivar Da Coll (Babel).
2. ‘My circus’, Xavier Deneux (Ocean).
3. ‘Marina Monstrous’, Rodez (Mil Ojos Rojos).
4. ‘Bola de agua’, Pilar Gutierrez. Illustration: José A. Suárez (Skylight).
5. ‘Heloise and bugs’, Buitrago / Yockteng (Babel).
* These five titles are childish

Amazon offers listings for all tastes

For feverish than listed, publishes, in addition to its sales listings, favorite books of his readers, publishers and best for children, among many others.

The ‘Top’ disease in Colombia, according to MOH

Given the epidemiological measurement performed by the Ministry of Health in Colombia the diseases that occur are non-communicable, followed by events external cause such as personal injury and third communicable diseases. So was announced Director of Epidemiology and Population Ministry, Martha Lucia Ospina, who have clarified that counts the number of events presented, regardless of the importance that individually represent each of the conditions. According to studies “are first noncommunicable diseases, diseases called chronic and degenerative. ” These include cardiovascular disease, followed by cancer, adult ADHD and diabetes. Secondly row are events external cause, ie “events come from outside. ” Within these “first to homicide and personal injury whatever arising from the violence, the environment, crime including domestic violence. Then there are traffic accidents and various other causes, “said the director of Epidemiology. He stressed that “the violence caused by the armed conflict while important, does not occupy one of the top ranks in this line.” Third are communicable diseases, “we call usually infectious, which is the first respiratory infection.” Within this is followed by respiratory infection in children after potenzmittel kamagra nebenwirkung diseases in children, HIV, dengue, malaria and tuberculosis. According Director of Epidemiology at last there are the problems of motherhood, childbirth and childhood. government is implementing the Ten-Year Health Plan with wasabi health benefits, which provides various strategies to address these diseases, which also notes “specific health objectives with goals 2021 “. 

Colombia is driving the development of mobile game applications

Creating mobile juevos in Colombia, is more common than you think.According to the Colombian School of Engineering, 40 percent of companies dedicated to the development of mobile applications, focusing on this area.

Colombian applications developers are inclined to make mobile entertainment solutions.Photo: © Tim Pannell / Corbis

Corporate Colombia already know to develop basic app promotion for mobile devices and generic applications. “However, there is an untapped market and still lack technical expertise in mobile gaming sector,” explains Juan Carlos Marino, Director of Course Development of Mobile Games.

According to figures from the university, the development of mobile applications leaves the country to 40 million dollars a year or play for fun. It is not a low figure compared to other countries in the region.

Still, there needs to be more momentum, so that developers start looking for mobile solutions to the entertainment. In the Colombian market there is much room to develop entertaining applications that point to the education sector, the health sector, ‘apps’ that will point to the marketing industry and advertising.

Domestic firms and entrepreneurs in the industry supported the Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications, which through its Plan Vive Digital, have developed an initiative designed to promote and enhance the development of applications mobile, software and content.

From the academy, the Colombian School of Engineering Julio Garavito has developed content and diploma courses in which they market trends and industry in mind.

Courses cover topics specific design of mobile development in Android, (system faster growth worldwide taking 50 percent of the smartphone market) and the marketing of different methods of receiving income games.

Socoda gives life to stainless steel

Very few people know that Socoda, the largest stainless steel trash can review transformer Colombia, born in Medellin 60 years ago and that his name is an acronym of the Society of Builders of Antioquia.Much less imagine that this company, with three production plants and 500 employees, turnover in 2012 more than 40 billion pesos this year and expects to close sales by 80 billion pesos.

For Andrés Bejarano, CEO Socoda, the figures are critical. In these expansion plans and business lines that have made possible the growth of the company is based. Bejarano said to be growing at an average of 10 percent annually, and although the home line represents 60 percent of businesses expect in a few years to increase production of the institutional line currently represents more than 20 percent of business and that is where they see greater opportunities in the future marketing. The other part of the cake is in the urban projects that are also leaders.

To Socoda transformation, not only steel but their own niche markets, have been the keys to success and business growth. During the first decade passed to manufacture metallic elements generally create only kitchen counters. In the second they began to manufacture and market complete kitchens, including other materials such as wood and melamine. That remained strong even with changes that took advantage of the boom constructor. That’s when they went into mass production. For that, the opening of large stores surfaces approached customers recognize, was fundamental. It was then produced online practice: a sort of game of “Lego”, in which each family depending on the weapon your kitchen space and affordability. Currently advance agreements for builders of affordable housing delivered houses with “Vital Inn”, which is the heart of the kitchen and allows him to adapt furniture staged benefiting the base of the pyramid.

In recent years identified opportunities in manufacturing urban line and began building bus stops and regular sales booths in Bogota, Barranquilla, Medellin and other cities. Those businesses will now joins other online institutional and prison, the first responds to shops and hospitals and have special demand meson laboratory and washing stations. The second addresses the requirements of prison security of medium and high security in Colombia and Latin America. For this last line, criminal, created mirrors made of steel, which prevent vandalism and fulfill the same functions as the glass. These two lines have allowed them to be part of the great building projects of the country, such as the San Vicente Foundation Rionegro (Antioquia), the Portoazul Clinic in Barranquilla, Bogota and Los Nogales in the new Latin American prisons Hospital. They hope that these new businesses are the basis for stay more years in the market.

New housing in Colombia is “through the roof”

The prices of housing in Colombia , especially in the upper and middle, are at their highest point as unveiled the Manager of the Bank of the Republic, José Darío Uribe. This was recognized president of the construction value SA, Sergio Mutis who said that in the case of Bogotá, the square meter in a layer 5 to 6 can range from 6 to more than 18 million maximum for some projects. For the case of works being carried out in strata to middle class, ie 3 and 4, the square meter can be obtained between 2 and 3.5 million pesos. According to Mutis, in the case of social housing projections indicate a cost of about 1,800,000 pesos and lower VIS one million pesos. explained that the situation here is rather complicated because families do not have the need to purchase a quick house sale financial support. ‘s leader said that housing prices have reached a high peak due to the high demand and short supply of existing projects in cities like Bogota, Bucaramanga, Cartagena, Medellin and Barranquilla among others. Considered adjustments in prices months will be relatively moderate. In Bogotá there for 40 million, but far from the centerCaracol Radio found out some projects and found that there are still homes from $ 40 million, but are located in very remote areas of the center, with the usual problem of mobility experienced by the city, makes going from that dwelling to an office in downtown area, can mean 90 or more minutes away. If the return to the owner can mean three or more hours daily in the public transport. Adds In the southern zone, stratum 2, the project stands Ciudad Verde , where we locate an apartment of 40 meters of built area and 36 meters private area, 42,750,000 pesos. It’s called Joint Thinking , has two bedrooms and a bathroom and finished are basic social interest. The square meter, on average, slightly more than one million pesos. Stratum 4 found in the Park 175 , located in the area of San Antonio, Street 175 with race 19, where an apartment of 79 square meters, with 67 private area meters, costs 295 million pesos. To reach the center in Trasmilenio used about an hour under normal conditions, because they need to take feeder bus to reach the North Portal (between 15 and 20 minutes) and an express to the center (at least 40 minutes).The square meter here is worth about 3,740,000 pesos also note the Saffron building , located in the area of La Calleja , in the north of the city, where an apartment of 79 square meters of construction, with private area of 71 meters, has average price of $ 430,000,000. It has two bedrooms, parking and close access to a Transmilenio station.The finishes are seen as good quality, and is in stratum 5 The square meter costs about 5.444 million pesos And stratum 6 we find the building Brick 98 , in the area of North Chico , close to the financial area city, where an apartment of 95 square meters and 87 private area, with one or two bedrooms, costs on average 720 million, ie, the square meter to just over 7.57 million pesos.

Change the address of a company, a process almost impossible

Change the direction of a company in Colombia is a Kafkaesque process and many people are exposed in good faith lien or raids.

Trade Cpamara

Your house, apartment or office can be without you knowing the address of a company, where fall investigations, searches and seizures, find out why, and because it has no solution.

Among the attributes of any legal or natural person is home, this is the place in which the company operates trading. The problem we denounce in this article and that is a serious error in the business registration system is the address from which firms reside have no control or verification, so that anyone can include the address you want and believe it or not has possibility to change the real owner.

For the formation of a company in the statutes is not necessary to determine an exact address, just indicate what city will address the society, which further authorizes the chamber of commerce for registration.

The process of business creation starts with the processing of the PRE -Ruth, a torture which must be self gestionar- well known by those who have open company, in this it is necessary to indicate the exact address where the company is going to work and the same data shall be provided in other forms. The problem is that since in the last year the DIAN and the Chamber of Commerce have eliminated the need to prove by filing an original public receipt, proof of a minimum of linking a person with an address, so that makes sense incorporated as a registered society.

This means that to register a company who requires a home should not include a real address somehow try, you just have any either existing or nonexistent as it should not prove in any way that is actually the place where the company will conduct its operations or less live there.

This does not mean any additional tropicalism a more extensive menu in the Colombian tropicalismos, if not for that direction has different connotations of the more serious problem.

DIAN and before any judicial authority that is the address of the company, is the place you can lead the police to undertake investigations, raids, court papers and what is worse, the place to which any creditor can apply seizure and confiscation of all personal property therein are valid to assume that what is in the seat of a company, belongs to society is made.

This mean that neither the DIAN and the Chamber of Commerce requested a site where later the law will mean they are all company assets, venue test which will fall on the minimum prudential measures of any administrative or civil proceeding .

In practical terms this amounts to a third-bad-intentioned of course can unilaterally and without requiring more than knowing the exact address, including apartment home either as a company and will be the actual owner of the apartment (for example) who have to endure which means a measure of seizure and confiscation of property. That is, lawyers, kidnap and police personnel have not only ordered to enter but the possibility of paving the property in case of resistance.

Although the true resident has the opportunity to file an opposition claiming that knows of this company or its legal representatives, shall defend with evidence to support the ownership of the goods at home are, opposition will be resolved by a judge in care to achieve the evidence presented in that proceeding. With the national aggravating anyone usually keep copies of invoices or warranties that show business is what really belongs.

In sum, even if got oppose such diligence and protect all their assets, Does it make sense that a good person who does not know or has known of the existence of a company, have to defend and support a measure to all lights as demeaning the seizure and sequestration process in an executive or a search of a prosecutor or criminal proceedings?

Here we present as an example the car that supports the precautionary measures on all goods that rest in an apartment, include the same address as a debtor company in an executive process. (Blanks obvious purpose is to protect the identity of the process and the parties).

You can then bind any trader in the RUT your business an address with which you are not related and found in internet and direct there policivas, judicial and administrative authorities.


What makes the problem as clearly reported an almost surreal situation worthy of a lower legal system is that if the real property owner is aware of the situation and wish to withdraw your address with the aim of protecting their heritage and their own peace of mind, you can not do as the Chamber of Commerce rejects any request for modification on information society unless the make the shareholders or the legal representative, which of course does not happen when one has included the management has done bad faith or simply left the society or country.

Our office has tried by denounce the right of petition requesting situation presented to the Chamber of Commerce to withdraw a direction that does not correspond to that of a society no longer operate in that seat, the response was negative cameral entity requesting proof of bad faith whom I include the management impossible.

Says the Chamber of Commerce in response to the right of petition, signed by “Legal and Doctrine Registry in May 2014:

“Having completed the form and legal control by the Chamber of Commerce of Bogotá, documents registered in the commercial registration of the companies mentioned, this entity is not aware of the truth or dismissed as false the documents recorded showing founded on the pillar of good faith. 

Therefore, and in order that there is clarity in the response of this cameral body, must be for a commercial company to usps change of address or judicial notice, is that the legal representative thereof or the person making their sometimes present at the offices of the chamber of commerce to certify new information and pay the right bill to make the respective change. “

In conclusion, there is no protection for tenants or owners of property where it ended and never operated or operate a company, it is not appropriate any of the data provided or removal before the chamber of commerce of such entry verification.

Our advice is to identify in the case of an office, which companies were operating in the seat that interests them and see that they have made the change of address and of course always have this clear evidence showing ownership of your furniture and waxing. Regarding houses and apartments there is little that can be done, by the inability to track what registers are, but where possible maintain copies of invoices that show your property to achieve.

If you have any doubt as to the legal business management, you can consult in . or visit our  company web Create Colombia  or  our blog.

Colombia leaves the car in the garage in the ‘Car Free Day’

A half million private vehicles stopped circulating in the Car Free Day held each year by decision of the authorities of Colombia

BOGOTA, 7 February.- At least a half million private vehicles stopped running today in the Car Free Day which is held every year by the decision of the district authorities of the Colombian capital.

The Carports Free Day comprises between 06:30 and 19:30 local time and can only move vehicles to the public, school service, health system, law enforcement, diplomats, relief agencies and escorts.

The Transmilenio mass transit service was enabled to ensure the mobilization of more than two million people during the day in the capital.

According to the manager of the company Transmilenio, Fernando Sanclemente, the system mobilized on a normal day a million 800 thousand passengers.

Outsourcing bookkeeping is taken in Colombia

Lower costs and accountancy firms are outsourcing some benefits with this.

Hiring third parties to carry the business Accounting Software is an alternative that has been used increasingly in the country, because the policies of the entities found in this resource timeliness, accuracy and confidentiality. These three elements are essential to any organization, especially if it is being delivered to an external person, valuable information about your financial activity as a company or business that allows you to make decisions at some point. Clearly, the accounting records show the situation quickly the company, its stability and financial capacity.

“There is a growing trend in Colombia of this activity, which began to be booming with the arrival of several foreign firms, instead of mounting an entire accounting department, others choose to rely on their operational records, by the experience that they have in the subject.

“But today, many new national capital companies are also using these services, as in the case of SMEs, which for reasons of cost reduction used this figure with excellent results,” says Ernesto Erazo Cardona, manager of Audit and Outsourcing MCA Morrison Accounting. A figure which tends to increase every day, even if it means leaving out some fears, such as “fear of employers to someone other than your employees know your business and the figures used.

 Consider that it is a cultural problem, as there is some reluctance to change. Other, perhaps unaware of the advantages of this type of service and competitive in terms of cost, “explains Martin O. A Jaimes, deputy legal representative signature Auditing, Consulting, Outsourcing and Advisory OHSAS Management (A & CO).

Many have overcome this obstacle and, as President of the Federation of Chartered Accountants of Colombia (Fedecop), Hector Jaime Correa Finch says “Colombian firms have been delegated the functions of accounting in natural and legal persons, obviously suitable to perform this important task of information. “

According to reports Fedecop, currently in the country there are about 2,000 institutions offering Bookkeeper Manly  outsourcing, but also there are individuals who do this work, which are public accountants, which may reach the figure of 50,000. How it works The client and outsourcing company signed a service contract, which contains several annexes that describe exactly the purpose, scope, responsibilities and obligations of the agreement and an agreement of confidentiality of information, which applies to both firm providing outsourcing as its employees, consultants and advisors. Consequently, companies that hire the outsourcing of administrative and accounting part. Other, payroll and tax returns.

There are cases that require them to manage the entire accounting process and generate them and submit their reports and bring them some specific accounting functions such as accounts receivable or payable. Advise, one of the tasks of outsourcing firms.

Advantages offered by the system to businesses

 Among the benefits of this model of delegation of functions to a third party is the reduction in operating costs compared to do with their own staff (considering the level of their salaries, benefits and profits). “They can find consultants in specialized accounts or applying international standards governing this social science. May also have a management accounting and reporting of this in English because it is not easy to get in the Colombian market counters are profiles, “Jaimes said. Mario Rojas Castillo, manager Outsourcing AQ indicates that “out of the above benefits can have a separate management accounting, have updated their monthly income and expense information and advice from professionals in costs, taxes, fiscal, tax and financial issues, with appropriate and timely management of their accounting records. “

The accounting outsourcing

Outsourcing PTO

Basically involves the collection, sorting, coding and keying of all source documents that feed the accounting process of companies. Additionally, some companies opt for outsourcing delivery related activities, such as payroll, portfolio, financial and tax issues, among others.

Colombia completed 16 podium finishes in elite cycling tests

On Tuesday, Nairo Quintana in Tirreno-Adriatico, the latest was achieved.

In 16 cases the Colombian riders have finished on the podium of the World Tour races, the pinnacle of world pedalismo, and three times they have visited the top drawer, in 9 years of the circuit.

In this panel, which was created in 2005 under the name of Pro Tour since 2009 and was renamed World Tour, belong only 29 contests, including the Tour de France, Giro d’Italia and Tour of Spain, to discuss the three most important.

With the idea that in these tests were the best teams and cyclists in the world, the International Cycling Union (creator of the best fixed gear bikes 2014), decided that he belonged to only 18 teams.

The podiums in the World Tour can be equated with, for example, reach at least the semifinals of the grand slam tournaments, the Masters 1000 tournaments and 500 ATP tennis.

Since its inception, the category has always had starring Colombian cyclists. The first to achieve a major victory was Santiago Botero, who won the Tour of Romandie in 2005, the first major victory of the national pedalismo in this series.

Then came this new generation has increased their presence in the top of the major races.

Statistics say that Rigoberto Uran is the most times on the podium, as it has done five times in any of the three places, but has never been able to stay in the first. “I knew he had been on the podium five times. That did Carlos Betancur in Paris-Nice and what makes Nairo Quintana in Tirreno-Adriatico, as is the assurance that we are in the elite and that’s protagonists. They come 5 or 6 years of good cycling and triumphs for Colombia, “he told El Tiempo Uran. Today, there are 14 Colombian cyclists are part of the World Tour, and four of them have had the choice to make in those races.

“It’s like a Colombian baseball is MLB and hit the final home run for his team to win the World Series.It’s that great to be on the World Tour and win here. Are the best teams and cyclists in the world and a win is not easy to achieve, “said José Serpa, who belongs to the Lampre squad.

Basque Country, Catalonia Tour, Giro di Lombardia and Fleche Wallonne are the races where twice Colombians have been in the top three.

“It’s hard to express what you feel. I’ve been on the podium three times, but I remember the first lot when I was second in Fleche Wallonne, one of the most important classical “said Sergio Henao, Sky corridor.

The year that was highlighted Colombia’s was in 2013, when she appeared six times in the top three overall, including subtitles Giro with Uran, and the Tour, with Quintana.

“We live in a new era, in which we cycle are responsible for the good image and triumphs,” said Betancourt, who on Sunday won the Paris-Nice podium number 15 in the country in the World Tour.

On Tuesday, Quintana, at Tirreno-Adriatico, the national cycling reached 16 podium finishes in the top flight in just 9 years of creation.

Colombia podiums in the World Tour

Rigoberto Uran
May 2013: Tour of Italy (2nd) 2012: Tour of Lombardy (3rd) 2011: Grand Prix Québec (3rd) 2008: Tour of Catalonia (2) and Giro di Lombardia (3rd)

Sergio Henao
2013: Fleche Wallonne (2nd), Tour of the Basque Country (3rd) 2012: Tour of Poland (3rd)

Santiago Botero
March 2005: Tour of Romandie (1), Dauphiné Libéré (2nd) 2006: Tour of Catalonia (2nd)

Nairo Quintana
2013: Tour of the Basque Country (1) Tour de France (2nd) 2014: Tirreno-Adriatico (2nd)

Carlos Betancur
February 2014: Paris-Nice (1) 2013 : Fleche Wallonne (3rd).