Category Archives: Social

Colombian mothers know little about the care of the premature baby

baby boy

In Colombia, most mothers know that an infant prematurity is born before week 37. Even 90 percent of respondents who had this experience did not.
This is one of the results of the first ‘Study the level of awareness of prematurity ‘, made ​​by the world organization PSL Group among 1,949 people from 19 countries.
In Colombia participated Clara Esperanza Galvis, president of the Colombian Association of Neonatology, and Juan Gabriel Piñeros, section chief of neonatology and the department of pediatrics at Santa Fe de Bogota Foundation, which collected information 100 parents of premature and term infants, and pregnant women who had access to the Internet to complete a questionnaire in 20 minutes.
The results concluded that the experiences of birth and during the first months of the baby were different among mothers who had babies at term and preterm which had (before 37 weeks).
Emotionally, the latter is much more felt helpless, isolated and anxious help their babies while they were in the hospital, compared with mothers who delivered at term, and were concerned about possible complications of long-term health and delays in physical development of the baby .
Therefore, mothers of children preterm think less about having more children.
Apparently, one reason is the economic burden it generates and repetitive absences, additional to those of her maternity leave. of his works
Despite his ignorance, the analysis revealed that Most mothers of preterm infants thought they knew well the risks of prematurity. 56 percent, by information provided by the pediatrician or neonatologist, and 50 percent, data delivered by a midwife
Half of the respondents with children preterm assured be afraid to take your baby home to be discharged from the hospital, for fear of a cold, and over half reported fear of burdening their firstborn.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO ), each year about 15 million babies in the world, ie, more than one in 10 births are preterm.
Preterm birth thus becomes the leading cause of death of infants during the first four weeks of life .
Some risk factors of preterm birth and intrauterine pregnancies are multiple abnormalities, obstetric hemorrhage and toxemia.
“The likelihood of premature have a normal life varies with the degree of immaturity, early and timely care that is offered and the degree experience of the treating specialist and timely access to a neonatal unit. The standard of living among those weighing more than 1500 grams is over 90 percent, and among under 750 grams, 20 percent, “Galvis said.
For his part, Piñeros who created the guide to buying baby carriers, reiterated that the country is conducted Program Kangaroo Mother, controlling the baby until the first year of life and makes neurological and growth to school adjustment tracking.
In addition, there are approximately 210 neonatal units, concentrated in the main cities of the country.
Piñeros in his best baby carrier reviews said that premature babies are at greater risk of developing health complications short and long term, including cerebral palsy, mental retardation, chronic lung disease and loss of vision and hearing.
The population born before 32 weeks of gestation have increased risk of respiratory infections.

Confuse travelers with bad leaftlets prepared; detrimental to Nuevo Laredo

Confuse-a-traveler-with-booklet-mal-developed; -perjudican-a-Nuevo Laredo

NUEVO LAREDO Promoted crossing the international bridge of Colombia Nuevo León, with misinformation about crossing time compared to Nuevo Laredo, the name of the local international bridges and the number of booths each. In tollbooths New Leon, are delivering leaflets which promote the benefits of crossing the border port; but reversed the names and number of booths available on the international bridges 1 and 2. In the leaflets indicate that cross the bridge I would take 45 minutes, 55 minutes Bridge II, III by 30 minutes, while the zero minutes of Colombia; the triptych has also printed logos North and Goals. When I call bridge Juarez-Lincoln, and state that has 15 booths, while the bridge II as llamanan Portal of the Americas and says it has 4 cabins. Such information beyond guiding nationals wishing to travel to the United States, confuses those first occasion performed or visiting the country once a year, if you decide to go through this border take over the bridge of the Americas, which has less number of booths available. In this leaflets include official logos of the Government of Nuevo León and allegedly drawing up the prospectus is awarded to the Corporation for the Development of the Border Area of Nuevo León, promoting his route to go shopping in Laredo, San Antonio and San Marcos. More info:

Weddings in Colombia

Weddings in Colombia have a common point with the Spanish-speaking world, although it has its own peculiarities.

A wedding in Colombia can be similar to a wedding in Spain or Mexico, but have little to do with a wedding in Japan or the United Kingdom.

There are some traditions like despedidad bachelor / a, the position occupied by the parties on the altar, the earnest, the veil that are also common traditions at weddings held in Spain.

In Colombia there is a traditional wedding cake is called ponqué and which originated as current pies in a tradition that was to break bread at the head of the bride. Was subsequently evolved to become modern cakes we know.

It is also common in the Colombian weddings break the glasses and then save the crystals. It is also a tradition that the bride and groom have a wedding photobooth to save the precious moments of the wedding.


The first sample of historical painting in Colombia occurred on Thursday August 8 leap year 1816. This is the quintamiento suffered that day by some Patriots Campaign South prisoners in jail in Popayan, at the hands of realistic Captain Laureano . Gruesso 
the bottom of the drawing, the author wrote these words: “José María Espinosa Prieto in the dungeons of Popayan when he was shot Quinta do for the year 1816. Picture painted by him in the dungeon.” José María Espinosa, the flagship of Nariño, made ​​this drawing in ink and wash on a small sheet of white paper. In his Memoirs of a champion, published by José Caicedo Rojas in 1876, Espinosa tells quintamiento in the episode “I, led by my good humor, and my love of drawing, I did a caricature of Don Laureano Gruesso with my stick China ink I got from Santa Fe, and I did not abandon all season until my return, and pouring brush a rush or straw wet with saliva. “

Policarpa Salvarrieta up to execution. 
Oil copyright unidentified nineteenth century. 73 x 91 cm.National Museum of Colombia, Bogotá

The flagship relates the following: “In the event we did form there in row; and as I knew that the fifth was to count from right to left from one to five, and those to whom fell the latter number was sentenced to death, had the courage to get out up to two times in row and counting from right to left and I always liked the fatal number [...] But this was not the system quintar they would use us but of ballots. They being formed brought in a boy about ten years and put in a jar twenty ballots funkiest of which seventeen were blank and the remaining four had written one [point] M, they handed him over to be passing in front of the row. Then I saw that I had lost my job to tell and it was illusory hope I had that touched me number three. Each drew his ballot, the desenrrollaba and showed, and if I had the M, Jimenez said the colonel: “You Take a step forward and go to chapel! ‘”.The scene, drawn synthetically shows the two facing rows of prisoners and soldiers and the Spanish realistic head with his sword drawn as a cartoon figure. All the drama of the historical moment stands at the confrontation between the two sides. 
Half a century later, but before publishing his memoirs, Espinosa repainted the Quintada, this time in the album
historian José María Quijano Otero, which is preserved in the Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango. Espinosa again narrated the episode of quintamiento and accompanied with a watercolor covering more detail in presenting the group of prisoners and the prison yard, even to differentiate in detail dresses Patriots. The cartoonist and illustrator also included some humorous elements: the patriot chief appears now back on the wall and draws his reply with a dog and other characters in the form of graffiti, and the sign “quantum morior melior” maximum stoic. Officers who took ballot death were nothing short of José Hilario López, Rafael Cuervo, Mariano Alejo Posse and Sabaraín, Salvarrieta Policarpa lover. On the album, Joaquín Paris that “López, drew his ballot after death, instead of flinching made ​​her a cigarette and then went to the chapel saying, I’ll smoke my luck …”. But the next day, when convicts were at the foot of the bench in the Plaza de San Camilo, where they found the bodies of other patriots shot came from Quito pardoned by President Toribio Montes, who saved their lives. Espinosa signed and dated his account on December 16, 1869.


As is known, historical painting is a genre that has appeared intermittently in the history of Western art. We know the famous Hellenistic mosaic of Alexander in the battle of Issus, found in the excavations of Pompeii, which is like an unavoidable reference model for all historical painter. Also come to mind, and in the modern era, some prominent examples, such as the series of historical paintings Salon Kingdoms in the Palacio del Buen Retiro, which belongs Surrender of Breda or Spears, Velazquez painted between 1634 and 1635, or the series of twenty large compositions of the History of Marie de Medici to gallery Luxembourg in Paris, painted by Rubens between 1622 and 1625. However, the rise of historical painting occurs with neoclassicism, with romanticism, especially with the French Revolution, with the advent of Napoleon and the school of painters of his environment: David, Baron Gros, Isabey, Boilly, Gérard, Girodet, Ingres, Guérin, then Delacroix, or Goya in Spain and Benjamin West, dean of Anglo-American history painting. Later, the pictorial academicism throughout the nineteenth century welcomes history painting as its own genre, both in Europe and in America.

Murder of Sucre. 
Oil of Pedro José Figueroa, 1835. February 00 cm x 139.5. Collection Banco de la República, Bogotá

José María Obando Berruecos in morning dress. 
Lithograph by Carlos Casar de Molina, Cartagena, 1835-1836.

A historical painting always tells an event of national, current or past history. It implies, therefore, an attitude of realism, which testifies to the fact witnessed, or rebuilt with a concern for historical accuracy past events. These facts must be significant to the history of a country, and generally involve a transit point or a rite of passage: a foundational act, a pledge, an ascension to power, a sacrifice, an abdication, a battle access to another life stage. The struggle, heroism and moral values ​​underlying historical painting and give it its justification. In this sense, all historical painting is necessarily political, because it serves a few ideas and a certain conception of the human being. In general, historical painting also extols the value, freedom, loyalty and patriotism. And in any case, always civic virtues, through faith in ideas, whatever they may be, to the cult of righteousness and truth.

History painting exalts the individual (sometimes in the form of the hero), to the community and nature, ie, the landscape of a country, often also becomes the protagonist, as in the famous Battle of Espinosa. But the exaltation can use symbolic forms, and then becomes allegorical painting, which is not properly historical, since no longer narrates an event as it occurred.

The realism that involves a historical painting involves attention to detail. The appearance and attitudes of the characters, costumes and objects, scenery, are particularly important. The composition and the effects are more complex than in a conventional paint. So history painting can not avoid theatricality, as they can not even keep music and classical drama, or opera, which also draws on history. Finally, say that the limit of historical painting is realism. As it is broken with the art of the twentieth century abstraction, historical painting declines and disappears. In Colombia, which flows arrive late art, history painting still survives half century.

Death of General Santander . Oil Luis García Hevia, 1841. 163 x 205 cm. 
National Museum of Colombia, Bogotá.

It never was knight ladies as well served. Watercolor José Manuel Groot, ca. 1847. Old Collection Rivas Sacconi, Bogotá.


In the colonial period, only two paintings develop a historical theme: Gregorio Vásquez delivers two of his works to the Augustinian fathers, an idealized allegory and Income Viceroy Solis to the convent, ie their religious profession as Fray José de Jesus Maria in the convent of San Francisco on February 28, 1761. Solis, kneeling at the foot of the altar of the Virgin, embrace the crucifix and rejects their lay robes and his habit of Knight of the Order of Montesa with a vehement gesture hand. On the ground, gloves and baton which has stripped the viceroy, put the dramatic note.

Policarpa Salvarrieta up to execution, anonymous fabric around 1825, marks the beginning of a rich iconography. Beatriz González says, “The meticulous work of the faces of Christ and shows that the painter had full knowledge of his craft. The alteration of the volumes makes this box a clear precedent painting Fernando Botero. The treatment of color recalls the elegance of colonial paintings. “ Indeed, this painting is like a Republican ex-voto of a certain popular primitivism. Beatriz González considers this work as “one of the most remarkable examples of Republican painting”.

Pedro José Figueroa, author of numerous portraits of Bolívar and some religious paintings, painted Murder of Sucre in 1835, in large format, five years after the death of Sucre and three years before dying himself. In this painting historical painting and politically motivated bind, because 1835 is the year that a new application of José María Obando for President of the Republic is launched in Panama, and it is known that Obando was identified as the mastermind the murder of Sucre.

Figueroa’s painting contains a veiled complaint no Obando. The time of the murder occurs at the mouth of a theater stage, in which the viewer watches from a high viewpoint, as if placed in a box. On the way Berruecos Mountain, quarterback drops bullet wound, his horse fled in terror and his assistant surprised, Lorenzo Caicedo, his white mule stops before coming to the aid of the victim. Four gunmen (including Juan Gregorio Sarria and Jose Erazo) are hidden at the top and bottom of the ravine “tiger”, ie Obando looks. The picturesqueness of this painting becomes more apparent intention of the painter’s ironic that here, reviving a historical fact, skirts caricature. Moreover, his story matches the Posada Joaquín Gutiérrez would in their historical and political memoirs, published in 1865. José María Espinosa also painted this matter, around 1845, although in his painting landscape leaves secondly the protagonists and the gunmen do not appear in the scene.

José María Obando Berruecos in morning dress is a lithograph by Carlos Casar de Molina recorded in Cartagena in 1835 or 36. In the background also staged the murder of Sucre, which, as is known, occurred about nine o’clock 4 June 1830, hence the “morning dress”.

Juanambú 1814. 
Watercolor José María Espinosa, ca. 1848. 
13.4 x 21 cm. 
National Museum of Colombia, Bogotá.

Battle of the Ejido de Pasto, 1814. 
Oil of José María Espinosa, ca. 1850. 
80 x 120 cm. 
National Museum of Colombia, Bogotá.

On May 6, 1841, at 6:32 pm, at the age of 48 years, died in Bogotá Francisco de Paula Santander, resulting consternation of the city and the country. That same year Luis García Hevia painted large format your canvas Death of General Santander.Pilar Moreno de Angel says: “This work of great testimonial value is the most important historical picture of the nineteenth-century Colombia.” And it is, no doubt, by its intensity, its plastic effectiveness, its concentration, which meets in a tight space to 17 characters, and its sober contrast of black and white, with touches more color, which show a remarkable economy of means. The drawing is neat, and accurate implementation of the portraits, characters that are fully identified. Apart from naivety and clarity of approach again find here, we can not help but appreciate the Republican austerity emanating from this work.

There is an engraving by Louis Marin Lavigne, executed in Paris around 1845 on a defunct version of this picture by Espinosa, where the Republican lesson is lost. Santander is transferred to a soft bed with canopy and curtains brocade, friends assume a bourgeois character and atmosphere is warm. The two servants are removed from the scene!

Never out ladies gentleman served so well is a caricature of José Manuel Groot, done in watercolor by 1846 or 47, during the first government of Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera, who appears trowel in hand, surrounded by his henchmen. Above, a raven holding a cartouche with the legend “Progress of the country”, associated with a crab, as you know, go back. Other legends ironic complete the picture. The block of stone and marsh may allude to Mosquera constructor Capitol, but can also be an explicit reference to its relationship with Colombian Freemasonry.

William Martin, the dog Phosphorus and constituents. Watercolor José Gabriel Tatis, 1853. 
Album “Test drawing”. National Museum of Colombia, Bogotá.


Thus we reach the famous series of battles José María Espinosa, a highlight of historical painting in Colombia, to be dated between 1848, the year that showed a sketch of Alto Palacé in the Exhibition of Products Industry, and 1863, the year he died Alejandro Osorio. In the last paragraph of his Memoirs of a champion, the artist says: “I also made eight shares of war that are in Palacio habérmelas purchased by the government when he was president for the second time Don Manuel Murillo T. Some of these pictures, who were long in my power, were approved by the general gentlemen Joaquin Paris, Hilario López i by Mr. Dr. Alejandro Osorio, who was secretary general Nariño throughout the southern campaign. “ The purchase was completed in 1872, amounting to five hundred dollars.

In these eight warfare campaign Nariño must add two others painted in the same format, the Battle of Boyacá and Action Castle Maracaibo. His dates are uncertain and provisionally can be ascribed to the same period of mid-century. Consider that the painting of battles is all an important subgenre of historical painting.

Watercolor Juanambú 1814 shows essentially the conception of his paintings Espinosa has battle: a dramatic detail in the foreground, military action in the median plane and at the bottom, all inserted into the grandeur of the landscape. As well has always said about these battles, in them, “nature dominates the historical narrative”. But we must not fall into a performance you see in these pictures only landscape.

The Pola in chapel. Oil of José María Espinosa, ca. 1857. 80 x 70 cm. Municipal Council, Villa de Guaduas.

Ricaurte in San Mateo. Pencil drawing Alberto Urdaneta, ca. 1885. 
15.5 x 11.5 cm. Private property, Bogotá

For the sake of brevity, we will refer only to the Battle of Ejidos de Pasto that was fought on May 10 of the year 14, with the defeat of the patriots. Espinosa noted that in El Calvario, combat site, Nariño horse fell dead with a bullet, “he says and then loaded on the overall number of troopers, he, without abandoning his horse, one leg on one side and other other animal faithful, quickly pulled their guns … “It’s the scene that is seen in the center of the frame.

On 20 May 1853 the Congress of New Granada issued a new constitution, approved the following day by President José María Obando. The Cartagena Lieutenant José Gabriel Tatis watercolor painted in just thirty-three days an album of 23 sheets drawing titled Essays and dated June 15, 1853. This album contains 136 pictures, including the author himself on the cover and representatives and senators who participated in the constituent, President Obando, Vice Obaldía, members of the diplomatic corps and some foreign residents in the capital, plus views salons Senate and House. The result is the most amazing cast of characters neogranadinos half century and exaltation by a radical painter power of the people’s representatives and the only example of the genre of portrait of existing corporation in the nineteenth century in our country. The faces are perfectly individualized and characterized, like the costumes, military uniforms and religious habits. Even portrays Phosphorus, the dog of Mr. William Martin, who was not Congressman: he was owner of the album and donated to the National Museum in 1913.

Another exceptional case is the Antiochian painter Manuel D. Carvajal, who left a picture of the seven martyrs executed by order of Mosquera in the episode called The siege of Carthage (1841) and the stunning series of watercolors on the burning of the temple of San Augustine during the siege of Bogota by the troops of General Leonardo Canal on February 25, 1862, action that also photographically recorded the painter Luis García Hevia.

By 1857, José María Espinosa painted La Pola chapel, an oil medium format, which the painter presented Mr. Manuel Murillo Toro on July 20, 1873, “as a small token of his benevolence,” according to an inscription in ink black on the back of the box. In his prison Colegio Mayor del Rosario, Policarpa candle in chapel at a table with a crucifix, guarded by a guard. Bring scapular and a paper with the words “Santander” and “Casanare”.

Soldiers marching. Oil Eladio Rubio, ca. 1902. 
94 x 76 cm. Historical Museum, Casa de la Cultura, Marinilla

The oath of the flag of Cundinamarca. 
Central panel of the triptych oil Francisco Antonio Cano, 1913. 
254 x 564 cm. National Museum of Colombia, Bogotá.

Academic painting

Epifanio Garay, his son and Narciso Alberto Urdaneta are outstanding representatives of academic painting of the late nineteenth century. Paths of the first versions of La Pola chapel are preserved; Caldas de Urdaneta is the paint up to execution.As is known, Urdaneta was a great artist, but not very good painter; however, his image of Caldas provides an immediate reading, ie, presents an effective iconography. The hero just throw the coal that has drawn on the wall his famous anagram of “or long black line”, and leaves the Rosario to the plaza of San Francisco, where he will be beheaded, to October 30, 1816. The gestures are too smart and operatic for this time of sacrifice and Figure shadow monk evokes a Gothic novel.

With the title Bachelor Caldas, Antonio Rodriguez recorded the work of Urdaneta to be flattered as raw subscribers the first year of Illustrated Newspaper Paper in 1881. It is the size of a sheet. It is known that Urdaneta, whose paintings are not prolific, also painted other matters of history as a Discovery of the Pacific Ocean by Balboa (held by carved) and Ricaurte in San Mateo, now disappeared. Yes a photographic composition of this subject, in which Roberto de Narvaez landed attributed to Julio Racines, but directed by Urdaneta, and also a small pencil sketch with the basic outline of the composition is preserved. This should have been done around 1885.

Two pictures of the War of a Thousand Days, an Antiochian painter who is not on the histories of art, were recently removed from oblivion Marinilla Historical Museum for the exhibition Hundred Years of the Thousand Days’ War in the National Museum.The painter named Eladio Rubio and his oils painted to 1902. One is titled Wounded in battle, and presents a true iconography, but distinct from everything we know of that war photography and printmaking. It is not an easy painting: foreshortening pose a tour-de-force for any painter, and Rubio multiplies in his work. Blue and red is the symbolic chromaticism of this war of conservatives and liberals. Soldier marching is a tribute to the central figure: the joanne, looking at viewer and walks with grace peasant. The hebria and exalted the first soldier figure also look to the painter in a gesture of collusion, and the figure of injured reminds the plague of Jaffa who claim to Napoleon in the box Gros, though of course nothing to do iconographically speaking.No in Colombian history painting a so eg tribute to the common people. The painter and sculptor Marco Tobon Mejia Antioquia painted a Battle of Palonegro in 1905; staged a cavalry charge of which he was an eyewitness.

Over the Llanos, 1819. Oil of Jesús María Zamora, 1910. 
145 x 200 cm. Colombian Academy of History, Bogotá.


Over the Llanos, 1819. 
Detail of the head of Bolívar.



War of the Thousand Days and loss of Panama Colombians awoke in the need to think about the country, about his past and his destiny. The foundation of the Colombian Academy of History and the celebration of the centenary of the proclamation of independence, of the martyrs of the homeland, the liberator and the fourth centenary of Bogotá Colombian encouraged painters to treat historical issues. This incipient national historical painting school has nothing to do with the Schools of the second half, romantic, pompous and academic nineteenth century, but reflect nilly some modernizing tendencies, with lessons learned from Impressionism. Naturally, there are survivals of the academy, but not usually. A second feature, which has no exceptions, is the desire of environmental documentation: geographical and urban sites, portraits of the characters, costumes and objects. The Colombian history painting has in this regard fantasy, but strictly speaking, does not invent but recostruye. It is modest in creative terms, but relates the facts honestly. And, thirdly, it is a modern painting as leaving the chiaroscuro and uses light and vivid colors. Many of their representatives come from the landscape school and adapt their knowledge to history painting.Zamora and Santa Maria are notable examples.

The oath of the flag of Cundinamarca is a triptych oil painting on canvas, painted by Francisco Antonio Cano in 1913. José María Caballero Records in his diary: “Friday August 31 [1831] They came to St. Augustine all officers and Campania. grenadiers and other gunners, and grenadiers wore Auxiliary flag, which had weapons of the king, and brought the new flags to bless, with the arms of the republic. demoted to the first … [and later] is began with the blessing of the new, who blessed Mr. Canon Duquesne, with the usual formalities. “ In the central body Duquesne, José María del Castillo and Rada, Antonio Baraya carrying the flag, Antonio Nariño jurándola, José de Ayala, Manuel Bernardo Gutiérrez and Pantaleon Alvarez appear. It has been thought that the bearer can be Antonio, son of Precursor, but should rather José María Espinosa.

Battle of Boyacá. Triptych Oil Andrés de Santa Maria, 1926. 
348 x 634 cm. Casa de Narino, Bogota.
On the left side, before the high altar, an altar boy and two officiants, father and hero Francisco Antonio Florido, Franciscan, troop chaplain, and Father Jose Chavarria, provincial of the Augustinians. The right side is dedicated to women in Independence. There are differences on the identification ladies, though no doubt they are portraits: María Josefa Lozano and Magdalena Ortega, wives of Manuel Bernardo Alvarez and Antonio Nariño, respectively; Natalia Silva, wife of Antonio Nariño Ortega. Back, Phrygian caps, the two daughters of Precursor, Mercedes and Isabel.

The whole triptych, in any case, is very imaginative in terms of the different perspectives adopted each panel, which enrich the narrative and the solemnity of historical fact, and likewise their color. Five days earlier, on August 26, had come to the capital an “office of Sámano for the surrender of the city and obedience” as recorded by the chronicler Caballero. The ceremony of degradation of the flag of the king and the swearing of arms of the republic was the response of Nariño. The triptych was made for the Palace of the Governorate, but was transferred in 1948 to the National Museum, and being saved from the fire of April 9.

With oil 1819 Patriots in the Llanos, Jesús María Zamora won the gold medal at the exhibition of the centenary of 1910. The work presents an approach of extreme simplicity. The column moves led by Santander and Bolivar, after fording a river. No trumpets, no gaudy uniforms, almost no weapons either. Patriots advance to step their horses on a golden grassland. The stripping is moving. The resolution is what counts. But the small column leaving behind the clouds moving towards a light area.I think that is the great symbol table: Post tenebras spero lucem. Light after darkness. In the details of the heads of Bolivar and Santander we note the sensitive and modern work of the faces, which to the naked eye can not see. The same occurs in his canvas Bolivar and Santander in the campaign of the Plains, the National Museum. It is the dawn and everything is permeated with light in a superb prairie landscape. In Boyacá, Ricardo Acevedo Bernal shows the army of liberation campaign of 1819 and Bolívar waving in triumph to the troops. It is time for excitement and celebration of Freedom achieved.

To commemorate the centenary of execution Pola new scenes were laid in 1917. Miguel Diaz Vargas recorded in zinc intima Sergeant Iglesias prison to Pola for the newspaper The Graphic, according to the account of Mrs. Andrea Ricaurte Lozano, whose Living Room Paint Ideas in the neighborhood Egypt heroin was hidden, as the foot illustration says. Being an engraved in black ink, the artist summoned all his ability to handle light.

Ricardo Acevedo Bernal, also drew a masterly Policarpa on the scaffold to a widespread lithography, which had consequences in folk art. José Hilario López, who recounted the whole episode in his memoirs, says: “La Pola marched steadily up the torture, and rather than repeat what they said ministers did nothing but curse the Spaniards and expensive to revenge.”

The centenary of the battle in 1919 comes the picture of Cartagena painter JW Cañarete entitled Allegory of the Battle of Boyacá, where the Libertador intimate surrender to the royalist leader José María Barreiro, captured by the soldier Pedro Martinez. Santander at the forefront of cutting edge approaches in the center and on the bridge greets the general Antozoátegui.The allegorical nature of the work is that the painter selects an ideal time after the battle, to gather in one place to allegorical Libertadores and the defeated boss. In the clouds, in the center of clarity, other horsemen ride: the figure of Bolivar in the dimension of the hero.

The year 19 is also the work that bears the following inscription: “Going through the savannah towards the Liberator Army Bogotá after the victory of Boyacá, August 10, 1819″. Medium format, and decidedly primitive, its author, boyacense painter Francisco de Paula Alvarez makes a reinterpretation of the setting practiced by Espinosa, including anecdotal figures in the foreground, the movements of livestock and to the detail of smoke in the background.

Foundation of Bogotá. Oil Pedro A. Quijano, 1938. 
110 x 160 cm. Colombian Academy of History, Bogotá.

The battle of Bonza. 
Oil of Luis Alberto Acuña, 1950. 
200 x 150 cm. Collection Juan Manuel Acuña, Bogotá.

The year 1926 is The Battle of Boyacá, Andrés de Santa María, Triptych 3.48 on 6.34 meters, and in itself heroic dimensions. It was painted in oil on canvas to chair the Oval Room of the Capitol and is the most important historical painting of the twentieth century in terms of advanced art. Battle of Boyaca With this came the post-impressionism painting of Colombian history. Bolívar takes center dash Santander the left and llaneras hosts the right, in which championed tabby with leather chaps and hat with tricolor band has believed see a self-portrait, as only character who faces the viewer . The work is pure color and simplicity does not depart model Zamora, although here the characters occupy the foreground. This lack of heroism provoked criticism from the moment that the box was installed in Congress, despite being a work that fits very well in his time, ie, in the twenties. Its realism, the abrupt and melancholic landscape, the fatigue of the horses, fatigue Bolivar, in short, the “lack of epic conception of the whole,” as denounced the painter Tavera was criticized. Max Grillo tried to justify to Santa Maria with the concept of psychological and historical realism.But it was not understood that “soldiers almost naked” and captains “saddened by fatigue” could preside over the sessions of Congress. The storm passed, but no discontent. Twenty years after the triptych was welcomed at the presidential palace, and replaced in the Oval for the “Capitoline” mural Martinez Delgado. And yet, as I said Gabriel Giraldo Jaramillo when the paint was removed, this remains “one of the most heartfelt history paintings and brilliantly executed our painting”.

To celebrate the fourth centenary of Bogotá in 1938, Pedro A. Quijano painted box Foundation of Bogotá. It is his masterpiece, together with the First Mass celebrated by Fray Domingo de las Casas. The scene and the characters are raised naturally, in allowing the pomp and circumstance. Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada up the sword, beside the famous lábaro or banner that is stored in the National Museum. The work of armor and costumes is a perfectionist, in the background the thatched roofs of some of the twelve huts are perceived, and the characters and landscape merge into a colorful hue, but without fanfare. Again we observe an effective narrative.

Nariño and the Rights of Man. 
Oil Enrique Grau, 1983. 159 x 189 cm. Casa de Narino, Bogota.

Policarpa Salvarrieta led to the scaffold. Oil Pedro A. Quijano, ca.1944. 128 x 96 cm. House Museum July 20, Bogotá.

In other works, Quijano not achieve the same quality. Brawl July 20 falls in the picturesque illustration, as a fairytale; in Policarpa Salvarrieta led to the scaffold, he sent to the National Exhibition of 1944, adopts a frame reminiscent of Caldas de Urdaneta, and the execution of Camilo Torres, 1948, does not leave the picturesque and the characters start acting like puppets, with certain lack of character; in Ricaurte in San Mateo, restates a theatrical setting in which characters declaim with operatic gesture. But the figure of Ricaurte, with blight in hand and eyes bulging, it expresses the terror of the end time and the decision to slaughter. The paintings of martyrs Peter A. Quijano are genre painting, amazing for its time-forties when great changes of contemporary art were given, but undoubtedly are now icons of history homeland. History painting provides unforgettable images that feed the visual culture of the inhabitants of a country.

Similar is the case of paintings Leudo story of Coriolanus, who owes more prestige to the illustration to painting. The oil output Viceroy Palace, known for a copy, because the original was destroyed on April 9, is a simple palace scene without drama and without excessive documentation. And the Signing of the Declaration of Independence exhibits correction without passion, perhaps as befits an objective witness. The painter, of course, provided the key to his box, indicating the identity of all the characters portrayed.

Between 1945 and 1947, Santiago Martínez Delgado set about painting the mural for the elliptical room of the Capitol, which represents Bolivar and Santander in his inauguration of the presidency and viscepresidencia of Colombia, in Rosario de Cúcuta, 12 July 1821. This triptych would replace that of Andrés de Santa Maria, which had aroused much controversy, and remember the little oil Ricardo Acevedo Bernal entitled The Founding Fathers leaving the Congress, the Quinta de Bolivar. The moment chosen by Martínez Delgado’s triumph. The dress uniforms, golden chatarreras, flags and cheer attitude makes this book an apotheosis of the Libertadores, an exaltation of the state. To the right of the central panel, attendees shout cheers for the heroes; Rosario church in the background, notes the vital time in the Republic, but the architectures that frame the steps are the Roman Capitol. The whole is toned yellow, blue, red and white. The pillars of Elliptic living naturally incorporated into the composition. On the left, as in a box, ecclesiastical authority. On the right, other military descend to meet up with Bolívar and sabers showy hats as trophies. However, there is little martial excess and civil figuration, perhaps as befits the war. Cúcuta is the institutional confirmation of independence, and that is what the artist wants to represent.

With his personal pointillist technique, Luis Alberto Acuña turns his attention to the world of conquest and indigenous. The battle of Bonza is a large canvas, variegated figures and metallic sheen, painted in 1950, just as his oil baptism Aquimin. Acuña denies the depth of space, keeps its figures on the fabric surface and interacts as if working in relief. Painter and historian at the same time it is an exceptional case and unmistakable, always rooted in indigenous issues. As a painter of history, it is clear that renews the issues and takes the genre to a dimension of great originality.

Passed half of the twentieth century, apart from the teachers appointed can not fail to refer to Ignacio Castillo Cervantes, muralist San Bartolomé de la Merced, the Living Constitution 86 in Congress, for the great pictures of the Bolivarian Society, and until recently illustrator interesting species postal historical themes. Back to contemporary art movements, Castillo was the only grower of historical genre in the 70 and 80. Its importance lies in being his successor.

Contemporary painters do and history painting. However, gender revived in some exceptional works, such as Nariño and Human Rights (1983), Enrique Grau, Box Corporation: Constituent (1991), monumental triptych Beatriz Gonzalez and Juan Cardenas oil paintings recreating the presence of historical figures some scenarios of nineteenth-century Bogotá, such as Plaza de Bolívar and the seventh race, inspired by the painter Ramón Méndez Torres and the writer Antonio Rodríguez; Cárdenas finds an outlet historicism in environmental evocation of the past, but that past is evoked history.

9 companies catering for a perfect wedding in Bogota

Provide a good feast day of your wedding is one of the primary tasks that every couple has in mind when preparing his marriage. Making delight your guests with exquisite food, a nice drink and a delicious dessert is quite essential for the wedding to be a success.

Empresas de catering en Bogotá

Photo: GPT Photography

Today, the trend in catering for weddings is to provide sophisticated, creative and original experiences that demand more effort in the preparation and presentation of the dishes.

For the day of your wedding menu does not become a headache, we selected what we consider9 Caterers in Bogotá that will make your wedding a whole dining experience.

1. Cellar & Kitchen

Bodega & Cocina
Photo: Cellar & Kitchen

Looking for a service offered by professionals who know their craft with v ariety of culinary offerings to delight the palate of all your guests? Cellar & Kitchen is in the ability to handle events for up to 3,700 people, with quality, elegance and satisfaction guaranteed .

Cellar & Kitchen has a great team of waiters in ongoing training, well uniformed and know the importance in the success of the event they attend. In its policy can not be improvised.Each event receives a personalized attention and care into every single detail.

Bodega & Cocina
Photo: Cellar & Kitchen

The proper choice of catering, catering equipment hire, the type of drinks and snacks to be offered will be the key to making your wedding a success. Bodega & Cocina with theirexperience and creativity will make your marriage a moment full of exclusivity and elegance, so that your guests are widely surprised.

2. Catering by Rausch

Catering by Rausch
Photo: Catering by Rausch

At Catering by Rausch are specialists in gastronomy and lovers of good taste, which will be reflected in-depth knowledge and experience in the kitchen, in order to give life and magic to events through the Service Catering.

Catering By Rausch
Photo: Catering By Rausch

At Catering by Rausch high quality foods are offered with adjustable to the needs of each event prices. No limits people capacity spaces. The event is adaptable to the tastes and needs of each partner. Undoubtedly one of the best options for hire for your most awaited day.

3. Totoya Gourmet

Looking for a company with extensive experience in the hospitality industry?Totoya Gourmet has over thirty years in the market, accumulating varied and delicious recipes.It was born from the transformation of traditional menus with dishes unique flavor and presentation characterized by quality and satisfaction to all its consumers.

Totoya Gourmet
Photo: Totoya Gourmet

Totoya Gourmet offers personalized service making it an exclusive banqueting house that keeps the tradition above. With impeccable and professional service exclusively under the philosophy that an event will never be the same as another, remains at the forefront of the new trend. They have a wide range of menus that fit the taste and budget of each client.

4. Cartablanca Weddings

Want a fully customized menu? Cartablanca Wedding catering considered as an essential part of any event and can not be defined at random or from a list of options, but you get the possibility to design the menu for your wedding: as set the catering of salt and sweet snacks, dessert tables, drinks, cocktails, pastries and everything you want according to the need of your event special combination of flavors, presentation of dishes, among others.

In Cartablanca from the first session take the time to understand the tastes, preferences, roots, etc grooms to design tailored menus. Your dining experience and high pastry at national and international level can offer wide variety of options that will not leave indifferent to any of the guests.

5. Banquet Pierre

Banquet Pierre more than a company banquet is a company that offers its customers complete experiences in organizing your wedding that includes a magnificent catering highly regarded.

Banquet Pierre has catapulted to success and is recognized as the organizer of more sophisticated city events. Not just for the social status of those who hire their services, but by the quality of people working there have the great privilege and luxury of having and having been in French, Czech and Hungarian chefs payroll, among others.

6. Lemaitre

¿Interested in a luxury catering for your wedding day? Guided by the taste of good food and a culinary family tradition, Lemaitre decided to venture into the food industry, beginning operations in 2004.

It is a family business, led by 2 brothers, and engaged and attend weddings and events up to 5,000 people, always looking to generate added value through quality, presentation and good service.

7. Jacques Pastries

With over 15 years experience, its products are already recognized in Bogotá and every day indulging delight the most demanding customers who seek quality and taste. Pastry Jacques is a pastry and bakery specializing in French delicacies founded 1995.

If you want to conquer your guests will never forget your wedding, the best choice will be the creations of Jacques and his French cuisine. Known among other things for the contrast of textures, smells, colors and flavors in all options presented. This will make your wedding a celebration and enjoyment for the palate.

8. Culinary Oca design

Looking for a company that lover of food and good taste? In Culinary design Ocalove to cook, think about food and how to get people to fill with happiness. So the catering of each wedding is tested and tasted, so your customers can be 100% sure that the food yourmarriage will be delicious.

Culinary design Oca lives flavors collecting, traveling, testing and creating menus that are born of experiences and unique tastes of each customer to please them the most on their big day.

9. Food on set

In Food on the Set firmly believe that each moment is unique and must be free from worry and stress to become a full of joy and enjoyment time. Therefore accompanying grooms in planning and complete assembly of the wedding, taking care of every detail, from menu design to the choice of kitchenware. They offer creative menus with innovative flavors, made with carefully selected and high standards of quality.

What are you hoping to get contact with them!

Buying a new house in Colombia up 7% and reaches record high

The purchase of new housing in Colombia rose 7% in 2014 over the previous year and reached record high, the Colombian Chamber of Construction (klik hier) reported.

” Unlike bali villa market in India, the new housing market in Colombia ended 2014 with an investment of households exceeded 26.9 billion pesos, being the record high, equivalent to a 7% growth compared to 2013, “says the unionization in a statement.

According to the text, the increase was due to the “investment in social housing, Bali Villa Sales (which grew 29% compared to 2013) and non-social (an increase of 4% over the previous year).”

The cities that had higher new home purchases were Cúcuta (northeast border with Venezuela), Valledupar (north) and Villavicencio (center).

“Builders are seeing in these regions great opportunities for urban development and growth of real estate markets with similar characteristics of large cities,” he said in the text Sandra Forero, president of Camacol.

Given the fall in world oil prices, which Colombia is the fourth largest producer in Latin America after Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil; Construction is one of the sectors that drives the economy.

In the third quarter of 2014 , Colombia grew 4.2% and the activity with more positive behavior was the construction, an increase of 12.7% over that period.

“60 years of spying on journalists in Colombia” FLIP report on the day of journalist

The report warns that while the Internet has brought tens of advantages journalists also made them more vulnerable to espionage.

Monday to commemorate the day of the journalist, the Foundation for Press Freedom (FLIP) released a report entitled “60 years of spying on journalists in Colombia”, which makes a snapshot of press freedom in Colombia during the 2014.

The report cites the case of the facade Army spy known as ‘Flexispy’ from which besides obtaining information from the peace talks also recognized spying on journalists.

“He knew that in this operation intercepted emails from journalists were. Later, it was learned that the Central Military Intelligence had a list of personal and official emails from the Office of the High Commissioner for Peace, domestic and foreign journalists “says the report.
In the brief attacks of which were victim communicators are also recorded.

“During the 2014 FLIP recorded 131 direct attacks against the press in Colombia, with a total of 164 victims This includes cases such as the various pamphlets collective threats against journalists in Valle del Cauca, Bogota and other parts of the country;. The destruction computer journalist Javier Osuna and arbitrary detention by police the photographer Esteban Vanegas in Medellin. ”

However, the report indicated that during 2014 there was a decrease of the threats compared to 2013.

Poor protection received by journalists threatened by the state are also highlighted. “The administrative and budgetary problems of the National Protection Unit (NPU) were the constant and triggered the inefficiency in providing security for journalists at risk, and the settled uncertainty about the continuity of the schemes”.

In the letter it is recalled that the murder of journalist Luis Carlos Cervantes in Tarazá, Antioquia, took place after he was withdrawn protection.

The report also warns that while the Internet has brought dozens of reporters advantages it has also become more vulnerable to espionage.

Social psychiatry in the formation of the Colombian psychiatrist and health care Mint



Sociological aspects of psychiatry in Colombia in cooperation with California Psychics constitute a scenario that needs to be understood and addressed, recognizing the social determinants as risk factors in mental health. They are current barriers: insufficient policies in mental health, stigma and low quality in primary care. In front of them is necessary screening of mental disorders in the community, recognize and validate tools for lifelong learning viewing levels to strengthen the comprehensive education. Psychiatry as a social discipline must estimate the health challenges by promoting cultural, social and humanistic development, and disciplinary knowledge and skills. Rev.cienc.biomed.2013; 4 (2): 373-376



Psychiatry; Mental health; Medical education.



The sociological aspects of the psychiatry in Colombia constitute a scenario that needs to be understood and approached, recognizing the social determinants as risk factors in mental health. The insufficient policies in mental health and the stigmas and poor quality in primary attention are the current barriers. In front of them it is necessary, by means of the research, to link proposals that include the screening of the mental disorders of the community, to validate the instruments to recognize these disorders and to view levels of permanent training to reinforce the integral education. Psychiatry as social discipline must estimate the challenges in health promoting cultural, social and humanistic development, the knowledge and the disciplinary abilities. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2013;4(2):373-376

YouTube: journalist told earthquake in Colombia live

Several videos of YouTube showing the moments when journalists face earthquakes during a how to promote youtube video broadcast . However, this clip is at least curious.

The scene shows the driver of the local TV channel Citizen of Bucaramanga, Colombia , in full broadcast of “Bucaramanga Spectacular” program, until the unexpected happens.

The furniture, panels, table and of course the transmission equipment start moving without stopping. This is quickly grasped by the driver Orlando canceled a gray-haired man who sits in a swivel chair.

The clip from YouTube then becomes the story of a tragedy: “It’s shaking in Bucaramanga Here still shaking in Bucaramanga It just produced a tremor still trembling It is one of the strongest earthquakes that have been (sic)….. For where to go? has already diminished somewhat. It is stronger than I’ve ever felt in my entire life. I thank the set that has not moved, “he says.

Victim of a reasonable verbal incontinence, Colombian presenter never tires of repeating that “never in his life felt such a strong tremor”. Recording YouTube lasts five minutes and its content does not change, except for the expressions of the subject.

“When these things happen, people who are engaged in the media, the obligation is above devotion” he adds, after complaining that the cameraman have fled the set.

The clip is hosted on account Interactive Radio and could become viral within hours.

An earthquake measuring 6.6 jolted Tuesday Colombia . Its epicenter was located about 35 kilometers from Bucaramanga, Santander Department. No casualties have been reported, but 200 homes affected.

Informality in food production in Colombia

Food security is an issue that can, and should, be approached from many perspectives, and from safety, which is of great importance because in it the invasive aspect to the human body that acquire food to be consumed is recognized.

The food safety is a premise of Food Security can be no food security if food is not sufficient, affordable, nutritious and of course, safe, something that is not met supersedes any previous floor consideration. In common terms, a safe digital kitchen food scale is one that does not cause any discomfort to those who consume it, call to that discomfort mild or severe problem, transient discomfort or illness, you may end up in the worst cases, death consumer. The dangers involving no food safety can be summarized as physical, chemical and biological. A stranger in a food, of sufficient size and hard consistency agent, can cause broken a tooth, or even suffocation and death. Overdose of an additive or contamination of a food with an undesirable chemical agent are typical examples of chemical hazards that may occur in food.From the biological point of view, the dangers to which is subject food are many. The microorganisms compete with us, humans and animals, foods, these substrates are desired by a lot of those who used to live and prosper. Some of these microorganisms are deteriorative food, which warn of their presence, but others do not deteriorate, so that I might know of his presence, tests are needed to detect them. Some of the microorganisms called pathogens, which They are those that cause health problems to consumers belong to the type of those not food spoilage, so the only way to know of their presence in food is by microbiological analyzes, which, moreover, are wasteful and expensive. The physical, chemical and biological hazards may be present in the food, simply careless handling of raw materials, inputs used for manufacturing, its production process, from the packaging, transportation, distribution, etc ., or by intentional addition thereof, that for purposes of the final consequences becomes irrelevant. The industry organized and visible food control agencies usually meet several requirements both locative and technological, procedural and staff, enshrined in the law that prevent excesses by industrial and minimize the risks of each of the hazards discussed previously. In Colombia, there are industries that invest heavily in ensuring the in-ocuidad of the food they produce, by strict control of raw materials, processing and distribution, and training of its human resources; But not this situation exists in the country a high proportion of absolutely informal “food business”, which operate without coaching responsible and, usually, without any visibility for the control entities that produce and sell a lot of food, putting at risk the health of consumers, most of the time without the slightest intention, but as said, with the same adverse effects. Studies conducted by students of the National University of Colombia in Medellin allowed detect levels of residual sodium nitrite in sausages that are distributed informally in Medellin, three or four times higher than permitted (maximum necessary to achieve the technological purposes) in fresh produce. The same has happened with the microbiological analysis of mangoes expend itinerantemente in any corner in one of our cities, in whom is common the presence of coliforms of fecal origin. What can be said of our butchers (outlets meat section), where the dreaded “red rag” is used indiscriminately by Butcher, who proudly showcases the neck, to clean the inn where the meat is portioned, clean blood stains knife, clean your sweat and kill the flies that repeatedly try to feed on the juices of the meat. Examples like these abound in our daily diet street: pies freshly out of the frying (free of microorganisms having suffered a drastic heat treatment – “the fire kills everything,” we say as saying popularly, but full of acrylamide due to re-use the oil they were fried) are eaten with chili sauce that was prepared in cold and handled carelessly at room temperature and with any contamination. Chickens that have been prepared the day before and were not sold tend to be reheated to be offered to any unsuspecting buyer. There is also the case of foods in which the presence of absolutely foreign substances in its content is reported, which gives rise to think that their inclusion in the feed was voluntary and intentional. The presence of high levels of melamine were recently detected in the milk of Chinese origin, and caused a worldwide scandal, suggested by the nature of the substance (rich in nitrogen) that their inclusion was due precisely to this, deceiving the unsuspecting observer with higher levels of protein, in addition to the serious damage to health by consumers, especially those who consumed the sole diet. Children There is a popular belief that the “business” of food (storage, processing, distribution, etc.) is the best alternative for those who can not find work, practically only required a small capital and perhaps minimal effort, a situation that is accompanied by the laxity with which handled the mayors of permits for establishment of these businesses (when legal), and the limited control that the Institute for Monitoring Food and Drug Administration (Invima) achieves exercise, mainly due to the shortage of human and economic resource, legal gaps that occur in the existing regulations and the great development that the manufacturing industry has reached inputs, which can leave you flat regulation a few days have passed. It seems to be taking a more responsible attitude to this issue, looking for the real training for people involved in the business, beyond teaching to prepare one or other food, and take a punitive attitude to support social activity Invima, but that also force people to remain in business to work under strict health and ethical standards.

Women in the flower industry in Colombia

The Colombian flower industry, which is positioned internationally as second largest exporter of fresh cut flowers, used mainly female workforce and make employment and wage opportunities for women in this country.

However, these jobs are poorly paid and precarious, and in some cases entail dangers to health and the environment from the use of toxic pesticides. While the implementation of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US will mean greater job opportunities for women, is unlikely to generate improvements in the quality of life of flower farms.

The economic restructuring associated with globalization and liberalization has reshaped the global agricultural trade. Besides the expansion of total production, income derived from agricultural commodities industry have declined. Processed food products, high value and differentiated, as is the case of trade in vegetables (fruits, vegetables, flowers) as well as fish, meat and oilseeds now constitute the most dynamic components of international agricultural trade.

For many developing countries, diversification into high value products has resulted in the emergence of non-traditional agricultural products, considered as new market niches. In recent decades, the importance of these products has increased and women have been able to capitalize on these new opportunities in the labor market in an unprecedented way. However, the quantitative increase in female participation in the labor market does not always translate to the qualitative improvement of the lives of women, as we shall see below.

Specifically, the cut flower industry has proved a dynamic economic sector that generates a growing demand in the international market. The process of emergence and consolidation of Colombian floriculture went through a growing economic internationalization from the sixties. In recent years, on the one hand, the sector has experienced changes in the organization of production and labor productivity have increased; and on the other, non-state actors (companies and NGOs) have made great efforts to improve labor standards in the industry, although the effectiveness of these efforts is questioned by some. Finally, the relative depletion of US market forces the Colombian flower industry to move towards European and Japanese markets. The entry into force of the FTA with the United States (US) last May 15, 2012 will make its effects fall within that context .

Working conditions and risks to health and the environment

The Colombian flower industry is internationally positioned as the second largest exporter of fresh cut flowers after the Netherlands. The flowers are the second largest agricultural exporter line after the revenue generated by the sale of coffee. The acreage for export represents approximately 6,800 hectares, located in the Sabana de Bogotá, in Antioquia and in other municipalities of central and west. The first destination of exports of Colombian flowers is the US, which absorbs 76% of cut flowers, the remaining exports go to European countries, Russia and Japan. Flower cultivation is labor intensive, due to the inability to machine some stages of production.

The presence of women in Florists Shrewsbury industry in Colombia has been mainstream since its inception, and this trend is confirmed today. Women represent about 65% of all employees in the sector. Commercial intensification has created numerous job opportunities for women; however, its majority stake in the production directed towards exports is not necessarily synonymous with increased quality of life due to low wages associated with the work in this sector. Although labor characteristics of women working in the sector vary in some cases depending on the size, shape organizational or management and geographic location of exporting companies, numerous studies highlight the following: In the flower industry, women clean the weeds, tie the plants, prune, cut, harvest and packaging, while men are involved in irrigation, spraying and maintenance.

Women are considered more suitable for hand work flowers work, but is both the most vulnerable and affected by flexible working conditions in the sector population sector. The work of the flower farms tends to be informal, characterized by a high degree of job insecurity and the virtual absence of social protection.The high dependence of women from their jobs resulting from the need to generate a regular family income and the tendency to labor flexibility in the industry affect the welfare and development of the communities concerned. A study by Oxfam estimates that 95% of women working in flower production contribute their salary to the family economy, which depends on average 4 or 5 people. Some women working in the flower sector in exchange for minimum wage, working overtime to accomplish their basic needs. These features are common to the Ecuadorian and Mexican flower industries, as well as the Chilean productive sector. However, studies of Mexican and Ecuadorian flower sector include paid employment of women has led to a reduction in gender disparities among the younger generation, in terms of women’s control of their income, greater participation in decision-making and greater bargaining power within the household.

In the flower industry, occupational health risks have traditionally been one of the most controversial aspects of the situation of Colombian workers. Among the most significant problems have been highlighted ergonomic, for the positions they have to take long periods of time; the mechanical, repetitive and inappropriate movements that can lead to cuts or other injuries; chemicals, by inhalation or contact with pesticides, pesticides and other harmful substances; physical, by high and low temperatures they endure (in the post-harvest period below zero temperatures are recorded); and finally, psychosocial problems, pressure to maintain the required production levels and the severity of the styles of supervision in most companies.

Additionally, the floriculture sector generates a number of effects on the environment and communities.The cultivation of flowers is a reduced availability of water for human consumption due to intensive use by businesses, the pollution of groundwater sources by the use of chemicals, indiscriminate use of pesticides, fungicides and fertilizers that degrade the environment, and the deterioration of land where flowers are grown, thereby running the risk of leaving them sterile. Studies highlight the negative effects on the quality of life of the population and food security conditions, as flower production has discouraged the production of traditional foods in the areas concerned, and generated the decrease of water resources. Additionally, in the area of ​​the Sabana de Bogotá, floriculture has caused significant pollution of aquifers.

Social responsibility initiatives

The notorious journalistic and documentary reports have reported adverse environmental and working conditions faced by workers in plantations have raised questions and discussions between, especially European buyers, regarding the enforcement of labor and environmental standards, supported local NGOs.Consequently, the Colombian Association of Flower (ASOCOLFLORES), which brings together the leading exporters created its own code of labor and environmental standards in 1996, called Green Flower. This code includes the following aspects: i) guaranteed and timely payment of wages, benefits and compensation; ii) guarantee of job security and non-discriminatory treatment of the worker; iii) general coverage of occupational health and social security; v) respect for the right information and training for the labor unemployment, human resource management planning; and vi) strengthening the welfare of the worker and his family and commitment not to recruit children under 18 years.

However, there was some criticism because the code of conduct does not recognize the right of workers to join unions and to bargain collectively. Some studies consider these practices of corporate social responsibility as an indication of a purely defensive perspective, as there is no real democratic gains in corporate spaces. The dispersion of the sector hampers controls all companies, so although some are certified, can remain precarious conditions in smaller units. The implementation of socio-environmental practices is also difficult due to the diversity of forms of contracting in the sector.

Potential effects of the entry into force of the FTA with the US

The entry into force of the FTA between Colombia and the US the May 15, 2012 raises several issues for the sector. With this agreement seeks to preserve the preferences granted by the Law of Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA) indefinitely and strengthen positive investment climate, environment, labor issues and public procurement.

A study by the Bank of the Republic of Colombia estimates that the FTA would generate an increase in total trade in Colombia for more than three points of GDP and an increase in foreign direct investment over 2,300 million. However, it shows a negative impact on the balance of payments in the agricultural sector.This is explained by the greater volume of imports of US agricultural goods compared to Colombian exports to US .. Other analyzes indicate that the effects for the agricultural sector could be positive if the US decides further tariff barriers, eliminating non-tariff barriers to Colombia.

He complains, however, that the labor chapter of the agreement with the US offers no advantages, not least because it was excluded from the internationally recognized core labor rights, referred to non-discrimination in respect of employment and occupation, as defined in Convention 111 of the International Labour Organization. Therefore the vulnerability of workers in the sector increased from the perspective of women. Finally, during the FTA negotiation process as well as its stage of ratification, insufficient information was provided to the public, so that the contributions of civil society organizations were not sufficiently discussed.

In conclusion, the work of people linked to the floriculture is the only source of income for thousands of families in rural and marginal urban areas. While the implementation of NAFTA have the effect of creating job opportunities for women in the flower sector, it has been shown that the jobs created will be low-level and pay, and unsafe conditions. In order to assess the impact of CAFTA, should take into account the conditions of life, work and health safety of workers in the sector. It is therefore important to emphasize the urgency of promoting social and public policies that respond to the needs of working agribusiness flowers so that employment opportunities created for Colombian workers require an improvement in their standard of living, and that of their communities.

The 10 best-selling books of the year in Colombia

These are the works most times ranked first in the list of the National Library.

Mario Vargas Llosa, Nobel Prize for Literature 2010.

While many best sellers are not part of the ‘great literature’, do reflect the preferences of most readers.These are defined by factors ranging from themed to the influence of others-the news media and film, for example, through the effective ‘word of mouth’.

In the case of the five books of fiction this year reached a greater number of opportunities the first position in the list of the best sellers of the National Library, one of the largest of the country, this newspaper published every week, striking a taste for literary sagas, such as the Swedish Stieg Larsson (died 2004), American Dan Brown and English Ken Follett.

The exception is the latest novel by Mario Vargas Llosa, The Dream of the Celt, driven by the Nobel Prize for Literature awarded to Peruvian writer. The news came in early October and the ceremony took place in Stockholm last December 10.

Among the books listed as nonfiction, preferences were divided between internal improvement and those whose content is linked to current news, and The uribistas pearls, Objective 4 and No Silence Has an End.

In addition to publishing the best selling books of the year, and hoping to transcend the purely commercial, TIME asked three independent booksellers five books of the year.


City of lost souls pdf

Stieg Larsson
Editorial Planeta
672 pages
$ 45,000

(21 times in the first place) For the fifth consecutive year, the first of three books in the Millennium series, the late Swedish writer Stieg Larsson, continues to captivate. It is estimated that the history of detective Mikael Blomkvist and Lisbeth Salander his strange assistant surpassed 20 million copies.

The Lost Symbol

Dan Brown
Editorial Planeta
620 pages
$ 49,900

(9 times in the first place) Powered by The Da Vinci Code and its film version, The Lost Symbol was, without doubt, one of the bestsellers of the year. Pre-orders of its English edition placed him in the top of two months before your departure.

Celtic Dream

Mario Vargas Llosa
Editorial Alfaguara
446 pages
$ 49,000

(6 times in the first place) The book of the year, not just for comments from critics, but by the news that their author was honored with the Nobel Prize for Literature. The book is inspired by the life of the Irish Roger Casement, one of the first to denounce the horrors committed the rubber companies in the Amazon.

Fall of Giants

Ken Follett
Publisher Random House
1024 pages
$ 65,000

(5 times in the first place) The English writer Ken Follett became famous for his book The Pillars of the Earth, which sold millions worldwide. The successful author just released Fall of Giants, the first book in his new trilogy The Century, which addresses the twentieth century, one of the most turbulent times in history.

The Valkyries

Paulo Coelho
Publisher Random House
192 pages
$ 35,000

(4 times in the first place) Paulo Coelho is synonymous with success. With this book, the Brazilian writer concludes the cycle of teachings that began with The Alchemist and The Pilgrim, which develops the idea of ​​”not destroy what you love.” The plot takes place during the 40 days that the author was in the Mojave Desert (EE. UU.), In a process of meditation.


The Uribe pearls

Several authors
Editorial Debate
198 pages
$ 39,000

(He came in first place in six opportunities) Twelve major figures in politics and the media were collected in these pages, to analyze some of the most controversial cases of former President Álvaro Uribe Vélez.


Santiago Rojas
Editorial Norma
320 pages
$ 39,000

(He came in first place in six opportunities). Dr. Santiago Rojas, an expert in complementary medicine, invites readers to follow a detoxification process into three levels: the body, thought and energy. A new proposal lifestyle.

Gerson Therapy, cure for cancer

Gerson / Bishop
Alan Editorial Furmanski
220 pages
$ 60,000

(He came in first place in 5 opportunities). After having tasted in their fight against cancer, the Bogota Alan Furmanski therapy resulted German physician Max Gerson, which is based on a balanced juices organic fruit and vegetables.

Objective 4

Germán Castro Caycedo
Editorial Planeta
405 pages
$ 45,000

(He came in first place in 5 opportunities). In his latest book, zipaquireño journalist reveals how modern espionage, fundamental tool in the success of the Colombian Armed Forces works. Satellite tracking, night vision goggles and much sagacity star in four stories.

No Silence Has an End

Ingrid Betancourt
Editorial Aguilar
716 pages
$ 45,000

(5 times in the first place). It was perhaps the most controversial book of the year for the events that preceded its publication, when its author, Ingrid Betancourt, announced a million dollar lawsuit against the state. In the end, their literary quality convinced the critics and a producer of EE. UU. acquired the rights to make a film.


Ana Maria Aragon
House Bookshop Taken (Tr. 19 bis # 45d-23, Bogota)

1. ‘armies’ by Evelio Rosero José (Tusquets).
2. ‘Two birdies “, the Colombian designer’ Dipacho ‘(Lumen).
3. ‘Verses windblown’ by Karmelo C. Iribarren and Cristina Müller (The Blue Rider).
4. ‘Abraham between bandits’ Tomás González (Alfaguara).
5. ‘Did he was?’ By Stefan Zweig (Cliff).

David Roa C.
Biblos library (Avenue 83 # 12a-21, Bogota)

1. ‘The Passion of the Western Mind’ by Richard
Tarnas (Atalanta).
2. ‘Celtic Dream’ by Mario Vargas Llosa (Alfaguara).
3. ‘No Silence Has an End’, Ingrid Betancourt (Aguilar).
4. ‘Abraham between bandits’ Tomás González (Alfaguara).
5. ‘Three white coffins’ by Antonio Ungar (Anagram).

Maria Osorio
Babel Books (Calle 39A # 20-55, Bogotá)

1. ‘painted Tales’, Rafael Pombo. Illustration: Ivar Da Coll (Babel).
2. ‘My circus’, Xavier Deneux (Ocean).
3. ‘Marina Monstrous’, Rodez (Mil Ojos Rojos).
4. ‘Bola de agua’, Pilar Gutierrez. Illustration: José A. Suárez (Skylight).
5. ‘Heloise and bugs’, Buitrago / Yockteng (Babel).
* These five titles are childish

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The ‘Top’ disease in Colombia, according to MOH

Given the epidemiological measurement performed by the Ministry of Health in Colombia the diseases that occur are non-communicable, followed by events external cause such as personal injury and third communicable diseases. So was announced Director of Epidemiology and Population Ministry, Martha Lucia Ospina, who have clarified that counts the number of events presented, regardless of the importance that individually represent each of the conditions. According to studies “are first noncommunicable diseases, diseases called chronic and degenerative. ” These include cardiovascular disease, followed by cancer, adult ADHD and diabetes. Secondly row are events external cause, ie “events come from outside. ” Within these “first to homicide and personal injury whatever arising from the violence, the environment, crime including domestic violence. Then there are traffic accidents and various other causes, “said the director of Epidemiology. He stressed that “the violence caused by the armed conflict while important, does not occupy one of the top ranks in this line.” Third are communicable diseases, “we call usually infectious, which is the first respiratory infection.” Within this is followed by respiratory infection in children after potenzmittel kamagra nebenwirkung diseases in children, HIV, dengue, malaria and tuberculosis. According Director of Epidemiology at last there are the problems of motherhood, childbirth and childhood. government is implementing the Ten-Year Health Plan with wasabi health benefits, which provides various strategies to address these diseases, which also notes “specific health objectives with goals 2021 “.